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#49273 - 12/14/03 12:52 PM Whether Present Manipur of India is that of the epic Mahabharata
Bishnupriya Offline
stranger

Registered: 12/14/03
Posts: 5
Do you think that the present state of north-eastern india is the kingdom of Babhrubahana (son of Arjuna)as described in the aswamedha parva of mahabharata ?
Most people of Manipur claim to be the descendents of Kshatriyas and they traced their ancestry with the Arjuna-hitrangada-Babhrubahana episode of the epic Mahabharata.

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#49274 - 12/14/03 04:34 PM Re: Whether Present Manipur of India is that of the epic Mahabharata [Re: Bishnupriya]
Americanhindu Offline
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Registered: 06/16/02
Posts: 3559
Hindu Kingdoms spread way up north in Iraq west (There is a city called Hindiyah even today in Iraq, which later might have become "hindi speaking India!) to all the way to tip of Kanyakumari.

There were huns, Hittities who invaded that region then perhaps during mahabharata war..Hindus considered everyone a cousin, if they were not directly related. So go figure.

you may be really talking about "Homer's Oddyssey and Iliad"
except that they were written in Greek language. The timing is very close and approximately involved similar incidents.

have you read Homer's work at any time?

Are there any english teachers from India here, who can tell us the similarities and dissimilarities between the two epics of hindus and two epics of the west?

Please do more research now..It is interesting..

Where is manipur located on the map of India?
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#49275 - 12/15/03 04:24 AM Re: Whether Present Manipur of India is that of the epic Mahabharata [Re: Americanhindu]
Bishnupriya Offline
stranger

Registered: 12/14/03
Posts: 5


Geographical Location:
Manipur is one of the eight north eastern states of India. Its boundary is surrounded by Myanmar (Burma) in the east and south, and Nagaland state in the north, Cachar (Assam state) in the west and Mizoram state in the south-west. Manipur is a meeting point, epicenter, between South East Asia and the Indian sub-continent. The Manipur valley, in the middle of the state, is at a height of 790 meters above the sea level and is surrounded by nine hill ranges in circles creating a hill and trough geography.

Imphal, the capital city, is surrounding by hills a Nongmaijing (said to be Mahendra Parabata as menmtioned in mahabharata) in the east and Longol in the north.


Ref. in Mahabharata:
In Mahabharata, there is reference to Manipur in at least four different places. The first reference to Manipur is in the Adi Parva on the occasion of Arjuna going from Hiranyavindu to see the astern region. The second reference is in Ashwamedha Parva in connection with the roaming of the sacrificial horse guarded by Arjuna and the eventual fight between him and his son Babhrubahana, the king of Manipur. The third reference of Manipur in Mahabharata, is in the Ashwamedha Parva once again. And the forth reference is in Mahaprasthanic Parva.


Political History:
A great majority of Manipuri People fled away from Manipur and took refuge in Assam, Tripura, Sylhet and Cachar during 18th and 19th century due to internal conflicts among the prices of Manipur and due to Burmese attack. Still now there are a great number of Manipuris living in the political boundaries of Assam and Tripura and also in Bangladesh.

In 1826, Manipur was brought into India by the treaty of Yandavo by Raja Jai Singh with the British at the end of the Indo-Burmese war. This followed a dispute in accession to the throne. With the intervention of the British the dispute was settled. In 1891 Churachand was nominated the Raja and it came under British rule as a princely state. During World War II Imphal was occupied by the Japanese. After Indian independence Manipur became a Union Territory and subsequently achieved statehood in January 21,1972.


The People:
It is stated that the indigenous people of the valley were the Gandharva's mentioned in the Mahabharata and other secular works. In the pre-Christian era, a bulk of the Indo-Aryan people form the north-west of India had entered into the Manipur valley. Now, it assembled in her the major folks of the east and the west.

Reasonably, the Bishnupiiya Manipuris consider themselves to be the Aryans of genuine decent, who, according to their opinion, came to the Manipur valley during the reign of B abhrubahana, the legendary King of Manipur and played a vital role in the formation of the existing professional caste and races of Manipur. The Meitei, on the other hand, differentiate themselves as the Mongoloid group of people. So Manipuri community is mainly comprised of Kuki-chin and Aryans people and the people of this community speaks in two distinct languages namely "Meitei"(Tibeto-Burman group) and "Bishnupriya" (Indo-Aryan group) language. The people of present Manipur also includes Nagas, Tangkhuls, Meitei Muslims and other colourful communities which have lived together in complete harmony for centuries.


Religion and Culture:
The Bishnupriya Manipuris are reputed to be a highly conservative race devoted to strict vedic culture and tradition and have still now retained Hinduism without the least deviation to other religions like Islam, Buddhism, Christianity etc. It can boldly said that The Bishnupriya Manipuris are perhaps even now the best observers of Vedic retualism in India. The social dicipline and ideas are even now very rigid as it were the Aryan people of the western India of Vedic and post-Vedic era. Moreover, there is no Vaisya or Sudra people in this community excepting Ksatriyas and Brahmins. This is the fact why these people do believe that they are the descendents of the Ksatriyas and Brahmins of Hostinapura who came to Manipur following Babhrubahana.

On the other hand, the Meiteis has largely adopted other religions like Islam, Christianity etc as time rolls on. Now the converted Meiteis of Manipur want to secede; some of them want to go back to their olden religion "sanamahism", some of them want to be Christians or Muslims or Buddhists. But even now, most orthodox Meiteis beleive that they are the descendants of group of people coming from Mithila (Videha) which is the eastern frontier of Aryan culture for a long time.

------------------------------------------------------------
May Lord Krishna bless you

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#49276 - 01/18/04 05:03 PM Re: Whether Present Manipur of India is that of the epic Mahabharata [Re: Bishnupriya]
Bishnupriya Offline
stranger

Registered: 12/14/03
Posts: 5
The kingdom of Manipur has been reknowned since the Mahabharat era (3102 BC) as the home of Princess Rukmini, the chief royal consort of Lord Krishna. Manipur is the legendary land where the descendants of the Gandharvas, the celestial musicians and dancers of the divine courts of Indira, live. According to legend, Lord Shiva and Devi Parvati danced in the valleys of Manipur to the accompaniment of the Gandharvas to the celestial light of Mani (jewel) from the head of Adishesha and that is how the land came to be called Manipur and its world famous dance came to be called Manipuri. It was under the reign of the great Manipuri leader Jai Singh (1764 to 1789), a great devotee of Lord Krishna, that many of the Manipuri dance forms that we see today were formalized.

Manipuri dance is extremely languid and lyrical. Its beauty is enhanced even more by graceful swaying mudras which reenact Lord Krishna's life and pasttimes.

The Ras Leela which depicts the Lord's romantic trysts with his beloved Devi Radha and her accompanying Gopikas is the most famous instance of Manipuri dance. Being rich in emotional content and sentiment, it is the mood of love or Sringar Rasa which pervades the entire performance.The delicate Mudra gestures and movements merely hint at the relationship between the dancers and their Divine Master, Lord Krishna.

The orchestra of Rasa dance consists of Khol or Mridangam (drums), Manjira (cymbals) and flute. The text songs are from great, saint lyricists like Jayadeva, Vidyapati, Chandidas or from Bhagavat Puran. The costume is rich and ornamental and extremely captivating. The sight of the costume itself is a great feast of colors, splendor and delicacy. The most delighful scenes of Manipur are seen when little children enact the roles of Radha and Krishna in their pure and innocent way.

Vaishnava traditions have a long history in Manipur dating back to Vedic times. Lord Krishna in his manifestation as Govindji is the presiding deity in the revered Sri Govindji Temple of Imphal with its twin golden domes. The principal deity here is carved out of a jackfruit tree in response to a dream which Rajarishi Bhagyachandra had in the 18th century.

Manipur's most famous Vaishnava sect, the Vishnupriyas are renowned for their beautiful arts and crafts which detail numerous aspects of Lord Krishna. Household items ranging from lamps to toys are often found decorated with Krishna art. They testify to the spirit of devotion among the Manipuri people who treat even ordinary articles with reverence in rememberance of their beloved Lord Krishna.


SOURCE: http://www.swordoftruth.com/

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#49277 - 01/18/04 05:04 PM Re: Whether Present Manipur of India is that of the epic Mahabharata [Re: Bishnupriya]
Bishnupriya Offline
stranger

Registered: 12/14/03
Posts: 5
In Mahabharata, there is reference to Manipur in at least four different places -

(1) The first reference to Manipur is in the Adi Parva on the occasion of Arjuna going from Hiranyavindu to see the astern region. After seeing the Mahendra Mountains, he proceeded slowly along the coast, reached Manipur and married Chitrangoda, the princess.

(2) The second reference is in Ashwamedha Parva in connection with the roaming of the sacrificial (Ashwamedha Yogya) horse guarded by Arjuna and the eventual fight between him and his son Babhrubahana, the king of Manipur.

(3) The third reference of Manipur in Mahabharata, is in the Ashwamedha Parva once again. Arjuna sent a message to Krishna to inform Yudhisthira that Babhrubahana, king of Manipur, would attend the horse-sacrifice. Then Babhrubahana arrived in Hastinapura with Chitrangoda and Ulupi and they were received with honor and affection.

(4) The forth reference is in Mahaprasthanic Parva. The five brother and Droupadi left the capital to leave India for good and reach heaven in flesh and blood. Ther were followd by a dog. Subhadra remained in Hastinapura, but Chtrangoda returned to Manipura city.



If we examin the root of establishment of Hindu dynasties in upper Burma, we see, all the Hindu dynasties settled in upper Burma had to come across Manipur from the western and Northern India by road as Manipur was only the gateway of Far-East. The beauty of the land Manipur, lake Logtak and its surrounding areas also might have attracted them and some of them settled there and reigned there for years together.

Now let us analyze the process of Aryan migration in Manipur. The land was known to the rest of world from ancient times. Panini mentions in his famous grammar a good number of places in India. Among the names so mentioned in Surmasa, which is identified as the valley of Surma. The valley of Surma is, as it were, the western gate of Manipur. The Valley of Surma or the Barak comes right upto the western fringe of Manipur.
Between Sylhet and the western fringe of Manipur, there is no
impediment such as hills, forests, big rivers or wide deserts. Once the Indo-Aryans reached Sylhet, they reached the western border of Manipur in a matter of decades. Once they reached there, it was easy for them to reach the Manipur Valley, for this valley was on an international route connecting the Gangetic valley with Burma and beyond. The route connecting the western bend of the Barak with Torbung in the Manipur valley was the easiest. It was wide enough to allow the passage of elephants.


Let us observe some historical keynotes on the origin of Manipuris and their migration, settlements and cultural penetration in the land of Manipur -



"Chanting 'Omkar', Sannskrit language, now obsolete, and Vedic rituals were prevailing in Manipur. As such the race of people inhabiting Manipur was distinctly Aryan" ( English translation from original Meitei)
Meitei Puran Bijoy Panchali Edited by L. Mani singh and Shri Mangi Singh / part II Page 138).

"By degrees, the Meiteis became dominant and that name was applied to the entire colony. now that they claim to be Hindu decent. It is highly probable that these hordes overrun a country( Manipur) that has been previously occupied by the people of Aryan blood known in the western India and to the Bards."
E.T. Dalton, Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal, 1872, page 48, 49 .

"Thus from the erliest time Manipur was a Brahminical kingdom and was learned well enough, their fame in astrology teaches us as far as the distinct part of China"
W. Yamjao sing, An Early History Of Manipur, Page-23.

"Although the general facial characteristics of the Mannipurie are of Mongolian type, there is great diversity of fetures among them, some of them showing regularly approaching the aryan type".
Dr. R. Brown, Imperial hazetteer of India, 1908, Vol xvii , page 126.

" The valley was originally occupied by several tribes principals were Khumal, Luwang, Moirang and Meitai all of whom came from different quarters of whom khumals are the most powerful and after them the Moirangs but ultimately the Meitais subdued them and form them into a single people."
Assam District gazeteer, Part -IX by V.C Elen, page 11.

" It was 33 A.D. that written language really began among the clans of Manipur specially among the Luwangs, Angoms, Khumals and the Moirangs"
Dr. M. Kiriti singh,Religious development in Manipur in 28th and 19th century, page-25.

" In the collection of coins there are a few pieces of the 2nd century A.D. of the Christian era, its legend is in the Devanagari scripts"
W. Yamjao sing, An Early History Of Manipur, Page-127.

" Hinduism is of comparatively recent origin though the records of the Brahmin families claim in some cases that founder of family settled in the valley at so remote a date as the middle of 15th century"
T.C. Hudson, The Meitheis, 1903,page 69.

"The people (Manipuris) are known to the Burmese as Ponnas that is Brahmanas."
Sir G. A. greorson
Lingustic Survey of India, Part III, vol III

"The Chinese record of the 2nd century A.D. - as stated by Pelliot mentions the existance of great -Brahmins in Manipurt and small Brahmins in Hukong vally"
R.M. Nath, The Background of Assamese Culture
Page 86, 2nd edn, 1978.


The land Manipur was formerly divided into small territories occupied by different clans of peoples, namely, the Khumals, the Moirangs, The Angoms, The Luwangs, the Ningthoujas, etc. The territories were after the names of the respective clans and they lived side by side in Manipur for centuries. In course of time the Meiteis occupied all the territories towards 15th century AD and established a sovereign kingdom known as ‘ Meitei Leipak’ ( the land of Meiteis). G. E.Geraini, in his work, Researches on Ptolemy's Geography, States that " Bishnupur was the ancient capital of Manipur and Imphal locally known as kangla or kangleipak was the capital of the Meitei Leipak of the later period which finds mentioned in the Meitei purana, i.e. Bijoy panchalee." So, Imphal come into existence in much later period than that of the city of Bishnupur as stated by Prof. Padmanath Battacharjee.

If we talk of the history in respect of the Aryan population, their migration, settlements and cultural penetration and the development of political institutions in Manipur Valley, there are a little source of information's about this. Ancient temples like the Vishnu temple of Bishnupur, Govindajiew temple in imphal, the Kohima stone, old palaces and other related buildings etc. supply us little more historical information's. Furthermore, the establishment of an indo-Aryanstate in the remote period in Manipur in indicated by Geraini, " From the Brahmaputra and Manipur to the tonkin gulf, we can trace a continuous string of petty states ruled by those scions of the ksatriyo race, using the sanskrit or pali language in official documents and inscriptions, buildings, temples and monuments of old Hindu style and employing Brahmin priests at the propitiatory ceremonies connected with the court, and the state".


Source: http://manipurinfo.tripod.com

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#49278 - 01/18/04 06:15 PM Re: Whether Present Manipur of India is that of the epic Mahabharata [Re: Bishnupriya]
marik Offline
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Registered: 07/06/03
Posts: 1366
Loc: United States

Quote:

The Ras Leela which depicts the Lord's romantic trysts with his beloved Devi Radha and her accompanying Gopikas is the most famous instance of Manipuri dance. Being rich in emotional content and sentiment, it is the mood of love or Sringar Rasa which pervades the entire performance.The delicate Mudra gestures and movements merely hint at the relationship between the dancers and their Divine Master, Lord Krishna.

The orchestra of Rasa dance consists of Khol or Mridangam (drums), Manjira (cymbals) and flute. The text songs are from great, saint lyricists like Jayadeva, Vidyapati, Chandidas or from Bhagavat Puran. The costume is rich and ornamental and extremely captivating. The sight of the costume itself is a great feast of colors, splendor and delicacy. The most delighful scenes of Manipur are seen when little children enact the roles of Radha and Krishna in their pure and innocent way.





It sounds so beautiful and captivating. I would love to see this dance.
Thanks for describing it

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By cultivating friendliness towards happiness and compassion towards misery, gladness towards virtue and indifference towards vice, the mind becomes pure. -- Patanjali

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#49279 - 02/06/04 02:11 AM Re: Whether Present Manipur of India is that of the epic Mahabharata [Re: marik]
KuntiPutra Offline
initiate
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Registered: 09/12/02
Posts: 116
Quote:


It sounds so beautiful and captivating. I would love to see this dance.
Thanks for describing it





Please take a look at this page(it has a very short sample clip. For the full dance clip, one has to buy the DVD)

http://www.invismultimedia.com/multimedia/demovideo/Manipuri.mov

To buy the full dance on DVD please visit this page:

http://www.invismultimedia.com/manipuri.htm#

_________________________
Lend attentive ear and hear my call, now heed my words; O Indra, draw this my song of praise into Thy innermost part of the state of Yoga. - Rik Veda

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