Posted by: stefan


I think that Aryan's Invasion to India begins from the ancient Aryana ( BACTRIA and BALKH , today's AFGHANISTAN )


For a very long time the oldest cradle of the Bulgarian tribe remained hidden for the scrutiny of science. Some looked for it in Altai and Mongolia, others, like D. Susulov, N. Stanishev, in Tarim, to the East of Pamir. There were others who looked to the North, in the Caucasus,and still others considered Bulgarians to be Europeans, akin to the Thracians. It is only in the last years that we found some guiding lights in thiscomplex mazeway of hypotheses. The most important one relates to the newly found inscriptions, written in the language of the Bulgarian rulers KUBRAT and ASPARUH. In their form those inscriptions remind very much of the East Pamir languages(Vakhan (Vahi), Ishkashim , Mundjan , Sarikoli and Darvaz), which is an indicating that the landof origin of the ancient Bulgarians was not Europe, neither was it Mongolia or Turkestan It was somewhere in PAMIR and HINDUKUSH . We get the same evidence from the peculiar words KAVHAN, TARKAN, ZHOPAN, ZERA, KALU, SETIT, and others, which can be found in the old Bulgarian inscription in Greek. Such concepts are unknown to the Mongols and the Turkic people, but they are well known to the people of Pamir. Anthropological research also shows that ancient Bulgarians have lived some time in the past in Pamir. In their physical appearance the old Bulgarians resembled very much the Pamir-Fergan racial type, that originated in the southern and the most civilized part of Central Asia. According to the oldest Armenian geography "the Bulgarians were among the 15 peoples "who inhabited once the land between Turkestan and the Areans in the foots of the mountain Imai" (Imeon is today Pamir and Hindukush).Since the name Turkestan was used before 6-7th century for the land beyond Sur-Darya, and the word "areans" was the name for the people in the Persian region of Area, this description indicates that the Bulgarians have lived at some period to the East of Persia and to the West of Sur-Darya - the mountains of Pamir and Hindukush. On the geographic map, appended to "Ashharatsuits", recently published by academician S. Eremyan, the name of the Bulgarians is located exactly at the point where the western ranges of the Imeon mountains meet it snorthern ranges - the Zervansh crest of Pamir. In the well known Latin anonymous Chronograph of 345, the name of the ancient Bulgarians is used as a replacement of the old Baktrinians, who inhabited the lands near the Pamir and the Hindukush. This is to show that for the compilers of this early historical source the Bulgarians were a part of the peoples inhabiting the region between Persia and Turkestan. Two more facts deserve attention. In the northern parts of the Pamir there was a state, called by the Sogdinians BLGAR, by the Arabs -BURGAR, and by the Tadziks - FALGAR. And to the West of the Pamir Indian sources (MAHABHARATA and the PURANAS) mention people of the name of BOLHI , BAHLIKA or BOLHIKI, ruled by the ancient king KARDAMA, and the Arab sources mention the ancient land of BALHARA. Some more details, suggested about a century ago by Prof. Vassil Zlatarski, are also of importance: round the mountain of Imeon there were, according to the Byzantine historian Agatius, the lands of the Kutrigurs, Utigurs and Vurugunds (presumably the Unogondurs). In the same region was situated the Onogur town of Bakat, according to Simokata. And lastly, the same region is the land of origin of the tribe of Kozagirs in whom Zlatarski, reasonably, sees the predecessors of the well known Bulgarian division "Kuchi-bulgar" like today's Afghan Kuchis. All scholarly evidence of the lands of origin of ancient Bulgarians focuses on one and the same geographic region - the Pamir and the Hindukush. Attempts to look for the oldest lands of the Bulgarians fareast - in Turkestan and Mongolia, where lived the tribes PU-KU and BAIEGU, mentioned in Chinese sources, or near the Mongolian river Tolaand the lake Balhash, have failed. For behind the Chinese words Pu-Kuand Baiegu are hidden the Kirgiz tribes BUGU and MAIIRKU, who have nothing in common with the ancient Bulgarians. The name Tola in the eastern Altai languages means deep-water river , and Balhash in Tuvinian means literally "swamp, moor". Fortunately there is a chronicle that has survived and it describes directly the land of origin of the Bulgarians in Europe. It was left by Mikhail the Syrian - Patriarch of Antiohia, called for his scholarly distinctionand erudition Mar Mikhail the Great. Here is what he says: "At those times there came from internal Skitia (Central Asia) three brothers,wholead with them 30 000 Skitians, and took the road of 60 days to the gorges of Imeon (Pamir and Hindukush) to the river Tanais (the Don),which flows into the lake of Meotida. Those people were named by the Romans Bulgars." This short description, discovered by Vassil Zlatarski, shows that the lands of ancient Bulgarians were in the valleys of the Pamir and the Hindukush. Starting from there, in about 60 days they reached the river Don and the Azov sea. If we start in the opposite direction from the Don to the east, we can easily confirm the correctness of this short story. For it is true that in about 60 days one can reach on foot from the Don to the northern foots of the Pamir, where the old lands of BALGAR were, called even today by the local Tadziks PALGAR. After almost two centuries of research and the endeavors of many scholars the sacred fatherland of the Bulgarians was discovered. This land, so dear to us, was situated in the foots of the Pamir and the Hindukush, where since ancient times existed the states of BALGAR and BALHARA.


Prior to Christianity Bulgarians had a different religion. We can learn about it from a direct historical source the dispute of Khan Omurtag with Cinamon of Byzantium.If you praise the Sun and the Moon [as gods] says Cinamon to Omurtag and make me wonder at their magnificence, and I do wonder, I still find them creations and servants not only to God but also to us, the human beings.To which Khan Omurtag answers: Do not abase our gods! Their power is great and you can judge about it from the fact that we, who pay homage to them, conquered the whole land of the Romans. (Cf. 1931, p. 256-259)
The Bulgars had the right to pay homage to their gods and to be proud of them. In an old manuscript we find the names of Bulgarian gods side by side with those of well-known ancient peoples. The author of this manuscript, unknown in Bulgaria until recently and kept in the greatest French and English libraries, is the famous Arab scholar El-Balhi (cir. 850). Here is what he says:It is interesting that all peoples have their own names for the Creator. The Arabs call Him Allah in the singular, and the other deities they call Illah; the Persians call Him Hormuz, Ized, Yazdan. In Zaratustra he is called Hormuz, but I have also heard the names Khod-Eht and Khod-Boreht, which means He-Himself. The Indians and the people of Sind (Pakistan) call him Shita Vabit and Mahadeva. The Turkic people say Bir Tengri*, which means,There is one God. The Christians of Syria say Laha Raba Kuadussa. The Jews say in their Jewish language: Elohim Adonai or Ehie Asher Ehie. Elohim means god in their language. I heard the Bulgarians call the Creator with the name Edfu and when I asked them how they call their idol, they answered Fa. I also asked the Copts what is their name for the Creator. They answered Ahad Shanak. (M. Tahir, Le livre de la creation de el-Balhi. Paris, 1899, v. IV, p. 56).
[*There is a peak in the Tien Shan mountains, named Khan-Tengri - 22,949 feet/6,995 m, - and it was long regarded as the highest peak of the Tien Shan system.]
Religious data offered by El-Balhi astound the reader with their precision and broadness. He gives the accurate names of God used by well-known peoples and also by some specific ethnic communities like the Sinds from Eastern Pakistan and the Copts, almost forgotten successors of the ancient Egyptians. It is then hardly possible that the scholar is wrong about the Bulgarians. What is more, his text contains the expression I heard the Bulgarians.., which indicates that he had the data directly from the Bulgarians. Judging by this text, our ancestors believed not only in the celestial bodies but also in a supreme God-Creator. As different from the Persians however, who called him Hormuz, and the Turkic people who called him Tengri, the Bulgarians used the strange and unknown word EDFU.
The two new sources discussed here broaden and enrich our notions of the religion of the old Bulgarians. So far scholars had only one real fact to rely on the name TANGRA, discovered in the form of TANGRAN by Prof. V. Beshevliev in an early Bulgarian inscription of the 9th c. It turns out that, like the Persians, who called God with three parallel names, the Bulgarians called him Tangra, but also Edfu a fact completely unknown to this day.
An interesting question arises: what are the regions in which the Creator was called with the two names of Tangra and Edfu? Something similar, as I was able to discover, existed in one single region of the East Pamir and Hindukush , where, according to historical sources, the Bulgarians lived before they migrated to Europe. The notion of TANDRA - lightening - is very popular there and is connected with the supreme God of thunder. Parallel to it a second name of God is also commonly used Hudo-ETH. Not very far from Pamir, in the Fergan valley, we still have the word FA idol, fetish, included in Assadis dictionary of modern Persian and referred to in the commentaries to El-Balhis works. The use of these notions in the region of Pamir is not accidental there was in these parts, following the Arab scholar Massudi, an enormous temple of the Sun, classified among the seven largest temples in the world. And the Sun itself, in its zenith, was called with names like Adhu and Edh, cognate with the Sanskrit notion Aditya (Sun), and especially the epithet EDDH burning, blazing.
Such data indicate that the roots of the religion of the Bulgarians can be found in the region of Pamir and Hidukush where they lived before moving to Europe. Two relics of this forgotten religion were discovered quite recently:
- a bronze rosette from Pliska, dedicated to the seven celestial bodies and marked by the typical Bulgar symbol IYI, and two stone slabs with the same symbol and
- drawings of the Sun and the Moon, found not far from the Bulgarska Morava river.
To the same religion we can attribute also three newly deciphered runic inscriptions from Murfatlar, two of which are dedicated to the Sun and Jupiter. The third one consists of the single word EFE, which could be a term of address to the god Edfu of the type EDFE or some parallel name of the same god. (Cf. P. Dobrev. Universum Protobulgaricum. New York, 1996).
Very interesting in this connection is the history of the religious cult of the seven celestial bodies. It appears for the first time in the Shumer-Accadian civilization where the names of the Sun, the Moon and the five planets, known to the Ancient world, are always accompanied by the word DINGIR god, akin to the Elam word TANRU. The Sun is called Dingir-UTU (Sun God) by the Shumerians, the Moon is called Dingir-sin (Moon God), etc. From this very part of the world the cult of the celestial bodies spread radially to the East and the West among the ancient peoples Assyrians, Indo-Iranians, Hittites, Celts, Romans, etc. Widely spread are also words like DINGIR and TANRU or the like: the Assyrian word TANRA heavenly body, the Indian TARA star, the Hittite TARA heavenly light, the Celtic TARAN god of thunder, the Anglo-Saxon THUNDER, the Pamir word TANDRA lightening, and the remotest cognate the Turkic word TENGRI (god of the bright blue sky).
Old Bulgarian religion, with its devotion to the seven celestial bodies and the Supreme God, called Tangra and Edfu, is part of this religious system. What is more, it does not represent the most simplified Turkic variant but the initial well developed system. This is not primitive Asiatic shamanism, as interpreted by some authors, but one of the oldest religions of humanity. It is high time to acknowledge this fact.


For more information :

Posted by: harerama


Aryan Invasion is a MYTH, please stop propagating such lies.

Especially one which tends to advance YOUR country and people in esteem.
Posted by: stefan


I am agree with you but..................

The Tocharians are vividly displayed in ancient wall paintings at Kizil and Kumtura (near the modern Chinese city K'u-ch'e, in the Tien Shan Mountains north of the Tarim Basin) as aristocratic Europeans, with red or blond hair parted neatly in the middle, long noses, blue or green eyes set in narrow faces, and tall bodies. The Yuezhi from the first century B.C. also are depicted in striking painted statues at Khalchayan (west of the Surkhan River in ancient Bactria). They too are shown to be Europeans with long noses, thin faces, blond hair, pink skin, and bright blue eyes. It is known from historical sources that during the second century B.C. the Greater Yuezhi moved from northwest China to Ferghana and Bactria, which lie on the far side of the Pamirs. From there they moved south across the Hindu Kush into Afghanistan and the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, where they founded the mighty Kushan empire. The latter, in turn, extended its power back into the Tarim Basin and with it spread Buddhism, which eventually reached China.
Posted by: stefan

Afghanistan was referred to as Aryana, Aryanam Viju ! - 09/21/04 11:15 AM

The name Afghanistan came into vogue during the rule of Ahmed Shah Durrani (1747-1773 AD). Prior to that Afghanistan was referred to as Aryana, Aryanam Viju, Pakhtiya, Khurasan and Pashtoonkhwah. The Parsi religious leader Zarathrushta in his work Zendavesta calls this region Aeseen Vijo or Aryanum Vijo meaning the land of the Aryans.
The Rig Veda and the Zendavesta are believed to be the oldest texts in the world. Many European scholars believe that both the texts were composed in Afghanistan. Zarathrushta, the composer of Avesta was born in north Afghanistan near Balkh, where he preached the Zorastrian religion which was the national religion of Iran for almost one thousand years. Not only is the language of the Vedas and that of the Avesta similar, but also the names of their gods like Mitra, Indra, Varun are the same. The description of battles between the gods and the demons are found in both the texts.
There are so many references made to Afghanistan in the Chhandogya Upanishad, Markandey Puran and other Vedic and Buddhist literature.
According to famous Afghan historians Mohammed Ali and Prof. Pajhvak, the Rigveda was composed in the ancient homeland of the Aryans, Afghanistan. The language of the ancient Afghans was Brahmui which is very similar to the language of the Vedas. References of the Pakhtoon people and the Afghan rivers are found in the Rigveda. The rivers which are today known as Aamu, Kabul, Kurram, Ranga, Gomal and Harirudh were known to the ancient Indians as Vakshu, Kubha, Krum, Rasaa, Gomati, Haryu respectively. The places which are now called Kabul, Kandhar, Balkh, Wakhan, Bagram, Pameer, Badkhasha, Peshawar, Swat and Charsadda are referred to in Sanskrit and Pali literature as Kuhka, Gandhar, Bahlik, Vokkan, Kapisha, Meru, Kamboj, Purushpur, Suvastu and Pushkalavati respectively. Gandhari, the devoted wife of King Dhritrashtra of Hastinapur (now Delhi), Panini, the great Sanskrit grammarian and Guru Gorakhnath were all Pathans. Takshshila, which is believed to be the first university in the world was established in 600 BC.

Posted by: vathsalan

Aryan Invasion or Dravidians went west? - 01/09/05 07:32 PM

Your posting was very interesting. I lived in Kabul for 2 years and found that Dari (a dialect of Persian) had a lot of common words with Sanskrit. There is a small Sikh community in Kabul, most of whom speak only Dari. I just finished reading Alaine Daniloue (spelling may not be correct!)'s A Brief History of India. I am inclined to think that the anicient Dravidian and Munda civiliation that was spread all over India travelled westwards. Alaine talks about Mecca being Makeshwar, where a Shiv Linga was being worshipped.

In ancient times, Afghanistan was part of larger India. We know that Kanishka ruled from Ghandar. Alaine also talks about Sanskrit evolving from ancient languages prevalent in India. Ithihasas and puranas were translated from these languages into Sanskrit.

I speak Tamil (a Dravidian language) but love both Tamil and Sanskrit. Tamil does not have alphabets for some sounds that Sanskrit has. I am guessing that Tamil pre-dated Sanskrit, which appears to be language that was consciously created. Sanskrit has links with Latin and other European languages. Perhaps this is where the Aryan influence is coming from?

My basic question: Vedic civilization was not reached in a few years. It must have taken thousands of years to get to that stage. There is a much better chance of native people of India to have reached the vedic culture than the Aryans who inhabited harsh lands and were always ravaged by wars. India was much safer than other lands, being protected by Hindukush and Himalayan mountains.

Did vedic Indians go west and spread the civilization or the Aryans invaded and gave us the vedic civilation? The latter seems difficult to comprehend. Perhaps it helped British and German scholars to conclude that way!

Or this Aryan invasion is a total myth to support the 'master race' concept of the colonial powers?
Posted by: tatvamasi

Re: Afghanistan was referred to as Aryana, Aryanam Viju ! - 01/12/05 08:04 AM

Afghanistan was originally called "Upa Gana Sthan(am)" meaning the land of the allied tribes(of greater Bharat Varsha).
Posted by: stefan

Re: Aryan Invasion or Dravidians went west? - 03/31/05 12:50 PM

According to Bunsen the Aryans first settled on the Oxus (AMU DARYA in BACTRIA)around 4000 B.C. They called this river the Sarasvati and here Vedic culture developed. Around this time agriculture begins, allowing the population to move from the foothills into oases along the rivers that flow into the Central Asian desert. The new settlements include large fortified buildings.

Seen in isolation, the Rigveda is undateable. However, by placing it in the context of external evidence some useful time brackets can be assigned. The reference to copper, harnessing of domesticated horse for transport and draft, and use of wheeled-vehicles show that the oral tradition of the Rigveda is from around 4000-3000 BC.

The Sarasvati in the Rig-Veda is described in superlatives. It is called 'naditama, the best of the rivers' (Rv 2,41.16), which surpasses 'in majesty and might all other rivers' (Rv 7.95.2). It is 'fierce' (Rv 6.62.7), and 'swifter than the other rapid streams' (Rv 6.61.13). It 'comes onward with tempestuous roar' (Rv 6.61.8) 'bursting the ridges of the hills with its strong waves' (Rv 6.61.2). Sarasvati springs from a 'three-fold source' (Rv 6.61.12) in the mountains (Rv 7.95.2), and finally ends in a samudra (literally 'the gatherer of the waters' or sea) (Rv 7.95.2). It is a long river because many kings live on its banks (Rv 8.21.18) and the five tribes (Rv 6.61.12) derive their prosperity from it. It also has a number of tributaries; it is 'sindhu-mata, the mother of rivers (Rv 7.36.6). It swells with rivers (Rv 6.52.6), said to be seven in number (Rv 6.61.12), Sarasvati being the seventh (Rv 7.36.6). Two rivers, Drishadvati and Apaya, are explicitly named in (Rv 3.23.4) in conjunction with Sarasvati. In addition, it is called 'sapta-svasa', 'with seven sisters' (Rv 6.61.10). Another verse (Rv 8.54.4) speaks of Sarasvati and seven rivers (Sapta-sindhavah). These must be the 'seven mighty rivers' that 'seek the seas' (Rv 1.71.7).

The devi Sarasvati is always seen with a peacock or a swan. She appears in the Rig Veda as the deity of speech and is worshipped with a chanting of the Devi Sukta from the Rig Veda. In the Vedas, Saraswati is also described as a river goddess associated with the element of water. She is the deity of fluidity and therefore of muses and oratory.

The name Sarasvati was later corrupted by the Persians (one of the tribes formed in the first millenium BC) to Harahvaiti and later to Harut.

The 2 rivers Sarasvati (Oxus) and Drishadvati (Jaxartes) represent Ikshvaku. Mr. Gangaram writes:” The Aryan civilisation was centered around the Sarasvati and Drishadavati rivers. We know that the goddes Sarasvati is also called Vaks (speech) and that the Sarasvati (daugher of the lake, sea) river is called Va(m)ksu in the Mahabharata. The Greek word Oxus is a corruption of Vaksu. The other river Jaxartes (Caks-sar(i)tes means eye-river) is. Drishadvati which means daugher of the eye (or stone). (Drish means: to see). The one river signifies sight while the other signifies speech. There is a relationship with Iksh-vaku (sight-speech), the well-known sage. Iksh-vaku is the great grandson of sage Kashyapa. The 2 rivers represent Iksh-vaku (see-speak), while Kashyapa is the Caspian sea, which in Vedic times was called Kasyapa Mira. Scientists have shown that the 2 rivers used to flow in the Caspian sea, before they changed their course and emptied in the Aral sea. This could be the cause of the southward movement of the Aryans. The Vedic river Raha ro Rasa is identified with the Volga river, which in old slavonic languages is called Rasa, from which Russia derives its name”.).

The Aryans called their country Arya-varta or shortly varta. Later on varta was corrupted to varat, barat which in modern times is mistaken for Bharat a character from the Mahabharata.

Bunsen however states that around 4000BC or earlier the Ayans were living on the Oxus or Sarasvati banks, around 3000 BC they were in Bactria and they reached the Indus around 2000 BC and in 1000 BC they reached Ceylon (Vambery, Bunsen, iii. 584,586), but some scolars object to this and state that the Aryans were much earler in the Indus/Ganga region).

From the Oxus river the Aryans reached the Tarim Basin around 3000 BC. Recently Aryan Nordic type mummies from around 2000 BC have been found in his ormer part of Aryavarta.
Posted by: openSky

Re: Aryan Invasion or Dravidians went west? - 03/31/05 03:14 PM

I think there are just too many errors in these theories ...To name a few:

Bharat: was a great king and the country is named after him.

Arya in vedic culture and literature is rather an attribute of human nature and not a race or tribe. The scholarships that don't grasp that are either too lazy (and dull witted) or just plain dishonest.
Posted by: stefan

Re: Aryan Invasion or Dravidians went west? - 04/01/05 06:31 AM

This information I'm reading now from WEB-SITE: --> ARYANS

History of Aryans in India

Clash of cultures

Mixed with original White Aryans, the Indus civilization was probably already in existence by the time the Aryans invaded. The invading Aryans were however more advanced and referred to the conquered Indians as "Dasyu". The Aryans who conquered these cities became its new inhabitants. (Compare the New World cities conquered by the Spanish). Indo-Aryan poetry (the Vedas) are full of stories of war against the Dasyu.

According to the Rig Veda , the leader of the Aryan invasion was Indra:"Thou, Indra, art the destroyer of all the cities, the slayer of the Dasyus, the prosperer of man, the lord of the sky." - RgV. VIII 87.6 . "Indra, the slayer of Vrittra, the destroyer of cities, has scattered the Dasyu sprang from a black womb." RgV. II 20.6 . It praises the god who "destroyed the Dasyans and protected the Aryan colour." - Rg.V. III 34.9. It then goes on to thank the god who "bestowed on his white friends the fields, bestowed the sun, bestowed the waters." - Rg.V. I 100.18

Rg.V. I 130.8 tells us :"Indra protected in battle the Aryan worshipper, he subdued the lawless for Manu, he conquered the black skin."

Indra - 5.29.10 - "One car-wheel of the Sun thou rolledst forward, and one thou settest free to move for Kutsa. Thou slewest noseless Dasyus with thy weapon, and in their home o'erthrewest hostile speakers." (noseless denoting the flatnosed aboriginals).

Indra - 10.23.4 - "With him too is this rain of his that comes like herds: Indra throws drops of moisture on his yellow beard. When the sweet juice is shed he seeks the pleasant place, and stirs the worshipper as wind disturbs the wood."

Indra - 10.96.8 - "At the swift draught the Soma-drinker waxed in might, the Iron One with yellow beard and yellow hair. He, Lord of Tawny Coursers, Lord of fleet-foot Mares, will bear his Bay Steeds safely over all distress." Notice that The Aryans are described as yellow haired (blond).

Indra - 1.9.3 - "O Lord of all men, fair of cheek, rejoice thee in the gladdening lauds, Present at these drink-offerings."

Posted by: openSky

Re: Aryan Invasion or Dravidians went west? - 04/06/05 01:57 AM

These links ( are not authority on scripturs. And a lot of foreigners get 'lost' in translation or prejudiced research. It is suggested in Hindu tradition that one should learn Sanskrit and meaning of these vedic verses from practicing gurus alone.

Also, right pronounceation (phonetics) is crucial for understanding of these verses, as these mistakes are the first signs of distortions. All the twisted conclusions then follow.
Posted by: anAdi

Re: Aryan Invasion or Dravidians went west? - 04/08/05 01:22 PM


According to Bunsen the Aryans first settled on the Oxus (AMU DARYA in BACTRIA)around 4000 B.C.

Baron von Bunsen (1791 - 1860) who introduced Max Müller to Macaulay was an imposter.

Thomas Babbington Macaulay, who was Chairman of the Education Board, sought to set up an educational system modeled along British lines that would also serve to undermine the Hindu tradition. While not a missionary himself, Macaulay came from a deeply religious family steeped in the Protestant Christian faith. His father was a Presbyterian minister and his mother a Quaker. He believed that the conversion of Hindus to Christianity held the answer to the problems of administering India. His idea was to create an English educated elite that would repudiate its tradition and become British collaborators. In 1836, while serving as chairman of the Education Board in India, he enthusiastically wrote his father:

Our English schools are flourishing wonderfully. The effect of this education on the Hindus is prodigious. ...... It is my belief that if our plans of education are followed up, there will not be a single idolator among the respectable classes in Bengal thirty years hence. And this will be effected without any efforts to proselytise, without the smallest interference with religious liberty, by natural operation of knowledge and reflection. I heartily rejoice in the project.

So religious conversion and colonialism were to go hand in hand.

The key point here is Macaulay's belief that 'knowledge and reflection' on the part of the Hindus, especially the Brahmins, would cause them to give up their age-old belief in favor of Christianity. In effect, his idea was to turn the strength of Hindu intellectuals against them, by utilizing their commitment to scholarship in uprooting their own tradition. His plan was to educate the Hindus to become Christians and turn them into collaborators. He was being very naive no doubt, to think that his scheme could really succeed converting India to Christianity. At the same time it is a measure of his seriousness that Macaulay persisted with the idea for fifteen years until he found the money and the right man for turning his utopian idea into reality.

In pursuit of this goal he needed someone who would translate and interpret Indian scriptures, especially the Vedas, in such a way that the newly educated Indian elite would see the differences between them and the Bible and choose the latter. Upon his return to England, after a good deal of effort he found a talented but impoverished young German Vedic scholar by name Friedrich Max Müller who was willing to undertake this arduous task. Macaulay used his influence with the East India Company to find funds for Max Müller's translation of the Rigveda. Though an ardent German nationalist, Max Müller agreed for the sake of Christianity to work for the East India Company, which in reality meant the British Government of India. He also badly needed a major sponsor for his ambitious plans, which he felt he had at last found. (There were some problems, with the dissolution of the East India Company following the 1857 uprising. Finally, the British Government itself provided him with some money. For the second volume, Max Müller requested and obtained financial support from the Raja of Vijayanagara.)

This was the genesis of his great enterprise, publishing the Rigveda with Sayana's commentary and the editing of the fifty-volume Sacred Books of the East. There can be no doubt at all regarding Max Müller's commitment to the conversion of Indians to Christianity. Writing to his wife in 1866 he observed:

It [the Rigveda] is the root of their religion and to show them what the root is, I feel sure, is the only way of uprooting all that has sprung from it during the last three thousand years.

Two years later he also wrote the Duke of Argyle, then acting Secretary of State for India: "The ancient religion of India is doomed. And if Christianity does not take its place, whose fault will it be?" The facts therefore are clear: like Lawrence of Arabia in this century, Max Müller, though a scholar was an agent of the British government paid to advance its colonial interests.

But he remained an ardent German nationalist even while working in England. This helps explain why he used his position as a recognized Vedic and Sanskrit scholar to promote the idea of the 'Aryan race' and the 'Aryan nation', both favorite slogans among German nationalists. Though he was later to repudiate it, it was Max Müller as much as anyone who popularized the notion of Arya as a race. This of course was to reach its culmination in the rise of Hitler and the horrors of Nazism in our own century.

Posted by: stefan

Re: Aryan Invasion or Dravidians went west? - 04/13/05 08:20 AM

The recent advances in Archaeogenetics have some interesting results for the Aryan invasion theory but are still in the early stages. Genetic study shows that Indian population as a whole has little similarity to other areas of supposed Indo-European settlement, indicating there was no mass settlement. Indian maternal DNA is generally similar right across the country indicating that the mass of population has been in place there for a long period. [2] (
More recent results from a 2003 study show that “Indian tribal and caste populations derive largely from the same genetic heritage of Pleistocene southern and western Asians and have received limited gene flow from external regions since the Holocene.” It also found that the Haplogroup R1a gene previously associated with Indo-Europeans is also found in significant amounts in certain tribal populations, and may have even originated in India. These results did not conclusively back the Aryan theory. [3] (
Genetic evidence on caste system and its origins
However, a 2001 examination of male Y-DNA by Indian and American scientists indicated that higher castes are genetically closer to West Eurasians than are individuals from lower castes, whose genetic profiles are similar to other Asians. These results indicates that at some point male West Eurasians provided a significant genetic input into the higher castes, a result which supports the notion that the caste system was an attempt by these predominantly male arrivals to keep themselves separate from the native population. [4] (
The genetic studies by Michael J Bamshad and his team (2001) from University of Utah and Dr. Spencer Wells (2003) from Harvard University, give strong backing to the Aryan invasion theory.
In the study by M.J Bamshad and his team [5] ( they wrote, "Our results demonstrate that for biparentally inherited autosomal markers, genetic distances between upper, middle, and lower castes are significantly correlated with rank; upper castes are more similar to Europeans than to Asians; and upper castes are significantly more similar to Europeans than are lower castes."
The genetic study involves the analysis of genetic material known as the Mitochondrial DNA which is only passed maternally and so it is used to study female inheritance. The male-determining Y chromosome, is passed along paternally and is therefore used to study male inheritance. The evidence implies that few millennia ago group of males with European affinities invaded the Indian subcontinent from the Northwest of the sub-continent.
The researchers went on to state that the genetic variations among the upper castes and lower castes is the evidence to the origin of the caste system. The people who were either migrating or invading the sub-continent had descendants in the male population largely in the higher castes than in the lower castes. The researchers state that these invading or migrating people might have instituted the caste system.
In the abstract to their paper the researchers stated, "In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European -speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the subcontinent. They purportedly admixed with or displaced indigenous Dravidic-speaking populations. Subsequently they may have established the Hindu caste system and placed themselves primarily in castes of higher rank."
The study also revealed another classic anthropological observation, that of women being significantly more mobile in terms of caste and hierarchical class than men, who are almost not socially mobile at all in terms of caste and hierarchical class. Genetic evidence reveals that over millennia men have married women from lower castes but women have rarely married men from lower castes. Thus the researchers imply that caste and class to a large extent is perpetuated by women and has also thereby contributed to the minimal mixing of Aryan blood with the natives.
The latest genetic research paper (2004) on Indo-European origins, support the conclusions of the (2001) study, backing the Aryan invasion theory[6] ( (However see Kivisild [7] ( and [8] (,for a slightly different view. Many of the earlier studies used retrictive samples, ignored 'gotra' system of mating, which results in skewed samples.The association between language, culture and gentics is still not clearly established.)
• Bamshad M., Kivisild T., et al; (2001) Genetic evidence on the origins of Indian caste populations, Virus Research 75(2): 95–106, Jun.
• Basu et al. (2003) Ethnic India: A genomic view, with special reference to peopling and structure, Genome Research, 13, 2277–2290.
• Spencer Wells; (2003) 'The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey', Princeton University Press, January.
• Cann, R. (2001) Genetic clues to dispersal in human populations: Retracing the past from the present, Science, 291, 1742–1748.
• A review of Michael Bamshad's work is given in the New Scientist (2001) : 'Written in blood'; New Scientist vol 170 issue 2291 — 19 May 2001, page 17.
• Richard Cordaux; Robert Aunger; Gillian Bentley; Ivane Nasidze; S.M. Sirajuddin; and Mark Stoneking; (2004) Independent Origins of Indian Caste and Tribal Paternal Lineages; Current Biology, Vol. 14, p. 231–235, February 3

Posted by: anAdi

Re: Aryan Invasion or Dravidians went west? - 04/13/05 02:46 PM


"Our results demonstrate that for biparentally inherited autosomal markers, genetic distances between upper, middle, and lower castes are significantly correlated with rank; upper castes are more similar to Europeans than to Asians; and upper castes are significantly more similar to Europeans than are lower castes."

The evidence implies that few millennia ago group of males with European affinities invaded the Indian subcontinent from the Northwest of the sub-continent.

The evidence does not imply that Europeans or Asians came to Bharata-Varsha (nowadays India), conversely could be that upper cast population migrated toward Europe. In the vedic scripture is presented the fact that Parashuram chased away and destroyed a many number of times different kshatrya “warriors” alliances which became very powerful and disturbed the peace of the aryan society. A part of them were the ones known later as the Egyptians and the Greeks, which took with them the Karma-kanda part of the Vedas, which emphasizes the worship of the demigods.

So the evidence presented is not conclusive for an aryan invasion.
Posted by: ashs

Re: Aryan Invasion or Dravidians went west? - 04/14/05 05:36 AM

Jats (of which i am, even tho i dont abide to cast) and rajputs are genetically scythian. And the purest form of scythian left (because of the punjabi culture and castism intermarriages).
Posted by: stefan

Re: Aryan Invasion or Dravidians went west? - 04/14/05 06:54 AM

Do you know some facts about the dinasty BALHARA in INDIA ?
The Proto-Bulgarians are scythian too (like the rajputs and jats).
Posted by: prajapati

Re: Aryan Invasion or Dravidians went west? - 04/17/05 09:22 PM

er Stefan,
firstly Hi.

i read your post with interest.

the first one clearly drives at the fact that the bulgarians moved west from the east. which dont violate the "spreading of vedic religions and culture westwards' principle at all.

as for your claim that taken in isolation the rig veda is undatable... go and read the article in this webpage.
Posted by: stefan

The Beginning of the Ancient Bulgarian Chronology - 04/18/05 07:37 AM

The Beginning of the Ancient Bulgarian Chronology It is known that the ancient Bulgarians knew perfectly well the basic laws of motion of the planets and the Earth around the Sun and because of that they possessed one of the most impeccable calendars ever. The calendar of the ancient Bulgarians surpassed the Indian and the Chinese calendar systems in the way the days and months were arranged. According to the ancient Bulgarian calendar, the year had 365 days. It began with the shortest winter day, which was a holiday. An extra day, called “The Day of the Sun” was added to every 4th year.
The shortest winter day and the Day of the Sun were not to be on a Sunday. Twelve months formed four quarters, the first month of the quarter having 31 days and the other two months having 30 days. Thus, every member of the ancient Bulgarian community was able to keep track of time independently.

In the ancient Bulgarian chronology, there were periods of 3, 10, 12, 17, 19, 21, 30, 47, 50, 53, 300, 600, 4332, etc. ancient Bulgarian years which were used both as denominators and intervals of time. The longest one was of 6328 ancient Bulgarian years. It is mentioned in the fragmentary inscription of Khan Omurtag and refers to the year 823 AD. The text consists of 14 lines, probably the concluding part of a contract between Danube Bulgaria and Byzantium. The inscription is carved with beautiful letters on a marble stone most probably from the capital town of Pliska*. Here is what it says:
“[…of the ruler] the name is [Khan Omurtag Juvigi]. The year of the appearance of the true god was 6328. They made a sacrifice and they swore in the written in the books [mutual contracts]…”
This historic source may be accepted as a proof of the early beginning of the chronology of the Bulgarian calendar. According to the counts of the great Bulgarian historian Professor Vassil Zlatarski the beginning is the year 5505 BC. Therefore, we can calculate that the new year, 2001 AD, is the year 7506 of the ancient Bulgarian chronology. Thus, the Bulgarians are among the peoples with the most ancient system of measuring time – a fact, which indicates their early civilising force.
Posted by: prajapati

Re: The Beginning of the Ancient Bulgarian Chronology - 04/18/05 10:55 AM

how does that prove your claim that the rig vedas cant be dated taken separately? they are clearly at least 6000 yearsold.

meanwhile what do you mean by bulgarians? if your first post is right, then they they are just another vedic people who went west (as did the teuronics, including the nordics, and the celts). nothing very original about what they - the vedic people who ended up settling in bulgaria - know or did.
Posted by: stefan

Re: The Beginning of the Ancient Bulgarian Chronology - 04/19/05 08:27 AM

I am reading now some texts from RAMAYANA and SRIMAD BHAGAVATAM PURANA and I have one question for you :

Is there a relation between sage Prajapati KARDAMA by RAMAYANA and KARDAMA MUNI from SRIMAD BHAGAVATAM PURANA ?(both are the same person)
FOR KARDAMA (The Ramayan localizes the UttaraKuru in Bahlika country [Ethnic Settlements in Ancient India, p 110]. According to it, Ila, son of Prajapati Kardama, king of Bahli (Bahlika) country, gave up Bahli in favor of his son Sasabindu and founded a city of Pratisthana in Madhydesa The princes of Aila dynasty [which is also the dyanasty of Kurus], have been called Kardameya [Ramayana (Lahore Edition) Uttarakanda, 89-3-2, pp 299-300, 309, cf Ethnic Settlements in Ancient India, p 110])

110 Ila's strange desire
Rama narrated the episode of Ila to Lakshmana. " Kardama's son Ila was the ruler of Bahlika. Once on a hunting spree he reached the territory where Kumaraswamy was born. There Siva was moving around in the guise of a woman with Parvati. Even the birds and beasts also were in the feminine guise. Ila and his entourage too turned into women. Knowing it was Siva's deed, Ila prayed to him. Siva was not pleased. So, urged Parvati. She said, " Half your boon will be granted by Siva and half by me." Ila said he wanted to be a man and a woman in alternate months. She said, "Amen," He metamorphosed into Iladevi and spent one month.

111 Budha falls for Ila
Bharata and Lakshmana were surprised by this strange tale and asked Rama to proceed. " The first month when Ila became a woman, Moon's son Budha fell in love. He learnt through courtiers that Ila ( Devi) had no husband. Budha grasped the truth and told Ila's entourage, " You will become Kimpurusha woman and eat tubers, roots and other forest produce and live. The men who come and marry you too will become Kimpurusha's

112 Ila gives birth to Budha's son
Budha spent time with Ila in the form of a woman. After a month, Ila became man again. He went to Budha bathing in the lake and asked him about his entourage. "Your entourage has killed by a hailstorm," he replied. Ila was stricken with grief. Budha told him you be here for a year and your wishes will be fulfilled. Thus, Ila made love to Budha and learned the righteous ways in alternate months as woman and man. Ila became pregnant gave birth to a son who was a replica of Budha. When the boy grew up Ila handed him over to Budha to initiate him into Brahmacharya.

113 Pururava rules Pratisthana
Budha initiated sages and told them, " Ila is the son of Lord of the people Kardama. You know about his sex change. Make him a complete man he once was." Sage Kardama suggested performing Aswamedha as the only way out. Thus Ila got back his manhood. Ila left Bahlika Kingdom and built Pratisthana and ruled from there. Sasibindu succeeded him at Pratisthanapura. He was again succeeded by Pururava. Thus, Rama narrated the significance of Aswamedha to his brothers.
SRIMAD BHAGAVATAM by Krsna-Dwaipayana Vyasa
(Translation: A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada & others)

3. The Lord then appeared as the Kapila incarnation, being the son of the prajapati brahmana Kardama and his wife, Devahuti, along with nine other women [sisters]. He spoke to His mother about self-realization, by which, in that very lifetime, she became fully cleansed of the mud of
the material modes and thereby achieved liberation, the path of Kapila.

27. Sage Kardama, husband of the great Devahuti, was manifested from the shadow of Brahma. Thus all became manifested from either the body or the mind of Brahma.

57. The father, Manu, handed over his first daughter, Akuti, to the sage Ruci, the middle daughter, Devahuti, to the sage Kardama, and the youngest, Prasuti, to Daksa. From them, all the world filled with population.

Posted by: prajapati

Re: The Beginning of the Ancient Bulgarian Chronology - 04/19/05 09:30 AM

you never answered my question!!

the Prajapati from which I took my name are neither of the two you alluded to.

the Rg Veda was written to Prajapti.
Posted by: stefan




The Royal Norwegian Embassy, Bangkok

The pastoral nomadism, known as Yamnaya culture, existed in the
steppe of Central Asia, just north of Turkmenia, earlier than 4000
BC. In the third millennium BC horses came to be in use in the area.
Wheeled carts became in vogue in the north of the Black
sea in the middle of third millennium. The burial mounds, called
Kurgans, spread through the steppe between 2500 BC and 1500 BC, and
around 2000 BC the Bronze age began to flourish there. Srubnaya and
Andronovo cultures descended from this Yamnaya
culture: They spoke Indo-European languages. It is believed that the
Scythians originated from the Srubnaya and Andronovo cultures. The
Scythians formed several secondary groups in the East like the
Sacians (Sacae) and Messagetes.


Massagetes (Sacae) lived to the north of the Oxus. When the
forerunners of the Huns,

The Hsiung-Nu tribe was dislodged from their territory in the western
China, they pushed Messagetes westward. It caused a chain reaction,
causing successive displacement of different nomadic tribes towards
the west. Massagetes pushed the Scythians, who, in
turn, displaced the Cimmerians from the northern shores of the Black
Sea. The Aryans from the Pontic steppe of Russia entered the Aegean
coasts as Acheans and Phrygians, and while pursuing the Cimmerians
crossed over the Caucasus and came to the
present-day Azerbaidzhan, and founded their capital at Sakiz, south
of lake Urmia in the present day Kordestan. Later they became allies
of the neighboring Assyrian empire.

The Medes managed to evict these Scythians from their territories,
and pushed them back to Urartu in Amazones from where they had
entered Persia. Then the Sarmatians -
a tribe of very similar origin as the Scythians, but whose maidens
rode, hunted and joined in wars with their men - pushed the Scythians
from their eastern enclaves. Being pushed westward the Scythians
entered Hungary and Bulgaria and established outposts in the Balkans.

Later Scythians and Sarmatians were evicted from the Black Sea area,
first by the Romans, then by the Goth and the Huns. This caused the
migration of the Scythian and Sarmatian tribes (Lombardi, Alani,
Heruli people) towards Scandinavia. Thus Scytho-Sarmatian culture
entered northern Europe and later became the cultures of the
Varangians, and the Vikings.


Yueh-Chihs The movement of the Aryan nomads along the Central Asian
steppe had been both from east to west, and west to east. While some
tribes had penetrated a long way into the Northeast to the region of
Pazyryk and Minusinsk (todays Northwest of Mongolia - north of Altai
range), other Scythians and Sarmatians had populated the Tarim oases
from Kashgar to Kucha, Kara Shahr, Turfan and as far as Kokonor lake
in Amdo region of Qinghai. From there they had entered the steppe of
Kokonor and Alpine grassland of Tibet.

Indo-European Tocharian language was spoken in the Tarim Basin. It is
an archaic Indo-European language, that separated at very early date
from the common Indo-European group, and was subjected to a
considerable isolation from Indo-european languages and influence by
non-Indo-European languages instead.

These people of Tarim Basin, called Tukhara, were known as Yueh-Chih
by the Chinese. The Yueh-Chih resided in the area northeast of
Kokonor as early as 1000 BC.

They were in the border of the Tibetan plateau as early as the second
millennium BC.

The Yueh-Chih people suffered defeat to Hsiungnu people in the second
century BC.

After their king was killed, the main clan (Ta Yueh-chih), led by
their queen, fled to the west in the region of Amu Daria. A small
group, known by the Chinese as Hsia Yueh- chih, fled across the
mountain to the south, and settled in the area of the Jangrig
people,who are the Chiang Tibetan. In Tibet they adopted the language
of the Chiang.

Ta Yueh-chih after being driven away from the Ili valley and the
Issyk Kul basin, settled in the province of Fergana along the Greek
kingdom of Bactria around 160 BC. The regions of Tashkent, Fergana
and Kashgar became inhabited by these Sakas (Yueh-
chih), who overran Bactria by the end of second century BC. Once the
state of Tokharai (the Indo-Scythians) stretched from north of the
Tunhuang Caves to the Chi-ling Mountains north of Lake Koko Nor.


Hsia Yueh-chih, who settled among the Chiang Tibetan, formed the
kingdom of Nanchao, presently in the Yunnan province and adopted the
language of the Chiang.

The Kingdom of Dian was established around Kunming in Yunnan, and the
township of Yizhoujun was established in 109 BC. The Dian Kingdom was
built on the east bank of the Dianchi Lake. There the nobles and the
common people, the warriors and the slaves, all were fond of songs
and dances. They showed a vibrant culture that became among the best
bronze cultures of the world. Then Nanchao Kingdom took over
Yizhoujun, and made Kunming one of its capitals. The small Kingdom of
Ailao was created by 122 BC by proto-Thai inhabitants in Yunnan, and
proto-Thai migrants from territories earlier settled by proto-Thais,
but then
conquered by the Chinese. Armed conflict between China and Ailao
Kingdom pushed the Aliao people towards Indo-China peninsula by the
first century BC. Thais migrated from their settlements in Yunnan.
They crossed the valley of the Salwin, and set up
independent principalities in the Sip-Song Pan Na near the region of
present day Chiangsaen on the Mekhong River. This territory included
the land north of the Mekhong in present day Laos, and perhaps part
of present day Burma, and was known as Yonok


The Saka tribes entered India through different ways: some entered
northwest India through the Khyber pass, while others entered through
the more southernly Bolan pass which
opens into Dera Ismail Khan in Sindh -an entry point into Gujarat and
Rajasthan. From here some groups went north (Punjab), some went south
(Maharasthra), and others went further east (UP, MP). This explains
why some Jat, Gujjar and Rajput clans
claim descent from Rajasthan (Chauhan, Powar, Rathi, Sial etc.),
while others claim descent from Afghanistan (e.g. Mann, Her, Bhullar,
Gill, Bajwa, Sandhu, etc.).

According to Sir Cunningham (former Director General of Indian
Archeological survey) different races of the Scythians succesively
arrived as conquerors from the border provinces
of Persian and India in the following waves: Sakas, or Sacae (the Su
or Sai of the Chinese), Kushans (the great Yueh-Chih (Yuti) named by
the Chinese - around 163 B.C.), Kiddarite, or later Kushans (the
little Yueh-chih called by the Chinese) in 450 A.D. The successive
Scythian invasions as and dynasties (e.g. Mauryas, Rajputs) extended
their control to other tracts of the
northern subcontinent. The largest Saka imperial dynasties of
Sakasthan included the Satraps (204 BC - 78 AD), Kushanas (50 AD -
380 AD), Virkas (420 AD - 640 AD) while others like the Mauryas (324
BC - 232 BC) and Dharan - Guptas (320 AD - 515 AD)expanded their
empires towards the east. The agrarian and artisan communities (e.g.
Jats, Gujars, Ahirs, Rajputs, Lohars, Tarkhans etc.) of the entire
western India are derived from the Scythians, who settled north-
western and western South Asia in successive waves between 500 B.C.
to 500 AD. Down to this day, the very name of the region 'Gujarat' is
derived from the name 'Khazar', whilst 'Saurashtra' denotes 'Sun-
worshipper', a common term for the Scythians. The Gujarat-Rajasthan
region continues to be the most Scythic region in the world. Sakastan
Starting from the Vedic period (1500 BC) until the advent of Mohammed
Ghori in the 13th
century AD, the west and northwest of India was politically unified
with the subcontinent only for 92 years under the Mauryas. Except
from this short time during the entire history
it was independent of the subcontinet and remained under the rule of
Saka kings. The term 'Sakastan' which is found on coins, was applied
to the Rajasthan-Gujarat core region, and at its greatest extent
included Punjab, UP and Haryana as well. A brief
selected list of the Saka rulers of Punjab and the northwest,
spanning 1600 years, includes Porus (4th century BC), Mauryas (3rd
century BC), Rudradaman, Azes, Maues,Soter Megas (2nd century BC),
Azilises, Wima Kadphises (1st century AD), Kanishka I, Haviska (2nd
century), Vasudeva (3rd century), Vyaghra rata and Yasovardhana.


The Mauryas , perhaps, were also of Scythic origin. Mauryan coins
have the symbol of the sun, a branch, a humped bull and mountain. All
these are preeminently Massagetae, who were Sun worshippers. The high
mount symbolized earth and the irregular curving
lines alongside it symbolized water. The tree branch is a symbol of
productivity of the earth . Agriculture and soldiering were the
traditional noble occupations of Sakas.


When the Yueh-chihs were displaced from the Kokonor region, a group
fled westward. Around 175 BC some of these Yueh-chihs formed the
Kushana empire. By the first century BC Northern India and western
Central India came under the rule of the Kushan
kings, the greatest of whom was Kanishka.


Some historians indicate that the Guptas were also of Scythic origin.
The most common gold coins of the Guptas appear to be the direct
descendants of the gold coins of the later Kushans. The early Gupta
coins are called "dinar" and their weight is the same as those of
westerly Kushana coins. The coins of SamudraGupta, Chandragupta I,
Kacha, Chandragupta II Vikramaditya, Kumaragupta I, Skandagupta, etc.
all have the central Asian long coat and trousers, and boots and long


The early Scythian art was influenced by the Assyrian and Babylonian
art. The Scythians turned the Assyrian naturalism to decorative
ornamentations. In almost all Scythian arts,
the animals are fashioned to create decorative effects. The art
objects, found in the grave pits in the western Siberia and Crimea,
show these highly stylized animal forms, which entwine and interlace
in complex manners. The horns and tails of the animals terminate in
foliage or blossom out in the shapes of flowers and birds as seen in
the ornamentations of the Vikings. These decorations combine
different animal figures together with parts of the body of one
animal merging with parts of the body of another animal.

The Scythian designs often represent battles between the opposite
forces: male and female, sun and moon. The ornamentations in the
jewel once wore by a Scythian king, found in the Ukrainian steppe
dating from about two and half thousands years ago, show
a male lion attacking from the back and a female lion attacking from
the front. A stag and a boar are their preys. In a third scene a
horse is being attacked by two griffins in a similar manner. These
preys represent the animals that the Scythians sacrificed to their
deities. The griffins were especially linked with the Amazon, and
later with the Scythians and Sarmatians.

They were the guardians of the treasures. In Assyro-Babylonian
mythology griffin and lion are beasts of the sun-god and the god of

Sakas, and Kushans were followed by permanent settlements of large
areas of India by these people.

Herodotus reveals that the Scythians as far back as the 5th century
B.C. had political control over Central Asia and the northern
subcontinent up to the river Ganges. Later Indo-Scythic clans


The pastoral nomads, who had to often face violent blizzards and
snowstorms on the high Himalayan passes, worshipped Rudra, who is
believed to reside in the high mountain and make himself manifest in
the form of wild fury of blizzards and hailstorms.

He received the most powerful position in the pantheon of these Aryan
tribes. Numerous mountain peaks were associated as adobe of Rudra. To
propitiate Rudra people made stone offerings by making piles of
stones on the passes. In ceremonial and festive
occasions goat offerings were also made to Rudra.

Apart from Rudra, the cult of Naga, who is the master of the
underworld, became widespread in the Himalayan region. The water
springs and lakes were believed to be the abode of Naga, who is
worshipped to invoke his blessings for fertility, plentitude
and prosperity. Naga is not only the god of subterranean entities
like lakes, rivers and fountains, but also of weather, rain and

After the Nagas, the cult of the terrific mother goddess, demanding
human sacrifice and orgiastic rituals can be traced over the entire
Himlayan region from North-west India to
North-east India.The symbols of mother goddess, tree, snake etc. are
found on the coins of the indigeneous kingdoms for, example on the
coins of the Audumbaras, which flourished between third century B.C.
and fourth century A.D. The people still carry fear
of orges, or forest spirits, who is seen as the goddess inspiring
terror among the common hill folks since the earliest times. In order
to exorcise these orges people made various kind of offerings and
sacrifices. These demonic goddesses were adopted into tantric
Buddhism by assimilating them into their system as the mystic
consorts of the male tantric deities as cloud fairies. The titans
lie on the high peaks and passes, gorges and cliffs, rivers and
ravines, on trees and in caves. They share the feelings and life of
the people, while dancing and drinking with them.


Many temples of Naga deities are located in the North-west Himalaya,
especially in the Beas valley. The Naga deities owe their allegiances
to the chief god of the area, Parashar, who is the divine suzerain of
the mountainous tract lying between the Beas and the Uhl. In Chamba,
along Ravi river, there are nearly two hundred Naga temples today.
More than seventy percent of 266 such temples in Kullu valley today
are dedicated to Naga deities. Most temples are located away from the
villages, in a place surrounded by deodar trees. These trees are
considered as the
property of deities and are never cut, except for temple building.

The trees closer to the temples are believed to be wish granting. In
these temples usually stone images with entwined, or braided,
snakes and serpent-hooded canopies over the image of the Naga deities
are enshrined. Bas relief of snakes on stones, iron
chains, twisted iron rods, tridents etc. may also be present in the
temples. The iron chain called sangal is said to be an
exact copy of what is depicted in the hands of the Egyptian deity
Osiris. Sacrifice is one of the main characteristics of the Naga
cult. Most of the traditions associated with the subterranean sources
of water invariably speak of human sacrifice, particularly the

The temple built in the heart of village, are the hubs of the village
community life. All types of community activities - religious,
social, cultural and even political - came to be
performed in the temple yard.

Posted by: stefan



The Saks, who were called Shaka, were another neighbouring people of the Bulgarians of the earliest period. This great and mighty tribe once lived to the east and north of Imeon. According to the legends, Budha, also known as Shakyamuni, sprang. Little is known of the relations between the Bulgarians and the Saks. It is known though that the Saks spoke a language of the Eastern-Iranian type, which was close to the Sogdian language. They resembled the ancient Bulgarians in their outer appearance; there is information about that in the Indian sources. In the Arabic chronicles, the Bulgarians were called by two parallel names, Bulgarians and Sakalibs. When their king sent a letter to the Arab khalif, Al-Moktadir, he called himself King of the Sakalibs in order, perhaps, to highlight his connection to the famous ancient Saks. It is also known that a characteristic feature of the clothing of the Saks and the Volga Bulgarians was the tall pointed fur cap. That is shown in the Persian images and the picture of Volga Bulgaria where the tall pointed cap is called kalansuva va al-Bulgaria (Bulgarian cap) by the Arab writer.

The information of the ancient calendar of the Sacs, which was brought to India and kept many centuries, shows that it was similar to the ancient Bulgarian calendar. In it, every year had a special name, sal bagai, which means commander of the year in the language of the Saks. The specific word bagai (commander) almost entirely matches the word bagain which was a war title of the ancient Bulgarians.
Posted by: stefan




The main tribes of the Jats who had to flee under the circumstances mentioned above were the Mandas, the Varikas, the Mores, the Sibis, the Attris, the Khattris, the Kangs, the Pors, etc. All these Jat clans are still existing in India and they are aptly termed as Bahlikas, ie people of Balkh area or the Oxus river.


In 1979 the famous Jat historian B.S.Dehiya published a paper entitled "The Mauryas: Their Identity", Vishveshvaranand Indological Journal, Vol. 17 (1979), p.112-133. In this now classic treatise, B.S.Dehiya proved several points, including the following:
- The Mauryas, Muras, or rather Mors, were Jats, and hence Scythian or East Iranic in origin.
- Consequently, Ashoka, Chandragupta and all other emperors of the Mauryan Dynasty were Scythian Jats (p.116).
- The Atharva Veda was the creation of Iranic sun-priests or Magas, and was not part of the original Vedic tradition (p.128).
- The primordial Jat religion was that of the original Iranic race, namely monotheist Sun-worship, which they and their Maga priests carried wherever they migrated (p.119, 128).
- Chanakya or Kautilya, brain behind the Mauryan Empire and author of the famous Artha-Sastra, was an Iranic sun-priest or Maga (p.128).
- The Mauryas or Mors were close kin of the Amorites of Babylonia and Egypt. (p.131)
- The Jat immigrants are close kin of the ancient Gutians of Sumeria (p.131), and the Goths or Gots (p.125), known in Latin as Getae.
Posted by: stefan



Panini documents the Madra janapada as a part of Vahika (Punjab) country with capital at Sakala or Sagala, modern Sialkot. Panini mentions two divisions of the Madras in Panjab or Vahika country i.e. the Purva (Eastern) Madras and the Apara (Western) Madras. The Purva- Madra extended from the Ravi to Chenab and the Apara-Madra from Chenab to the Jhelum. Thus, it appears probable that the Madras of Panjab was a section which had migrated from Bahlika (Bactria) country, the land of the Uttara Madras. Some verses in the Mahabharata allude to this connection of the Madras with the Uttara Madras.


Prof Jean Przylusky has shown that Bahlika (Balkh) was an Iranian settlement of the Madras who were known as Bahlika-Uttaramadras i.e the northern Madras, living in Bahlika or Bacteria country. These Bahlika Uttara Madras are the Uttara Madras of the Aitareya Brahamana.


In the Mahabharata, Sakala is mentioned as chief city of the Vahika, said to be located on the Apaga river. King Salya had taken part in the Mahabharata war, on behalf of the Kauravas. Madri, the mother of Pandava-putras Nakula and Sehdeva, was a Madra princess. Madri has also been referred to as Bahliki i.e princess of Bahlika janapada/tribe and king Salya has been referred to as Bahlika-pungava i.e foremost among the Bahlikas. These references obviously connect the Vahika Madras to Bahlika i.e Bactria Madras i.e the Vedic Uttara-Madras, which is known to have been the earliest settlement of the Madra people.

Posted by: stefan


Geographical Location of Uttarakuru

Dr M. R. Singh's views

Ramayana testifies that the original home of the Kurus was in Bahli country. Ila, son of Parajapati Karddama was a was a king of Bahli, where Bahli represents Sanskrit Bahlika (Bactria). Also the kings from Aila lineage have been called Karddameyas. The Aila is also stated to be the lineage of the Kurus themselves (Ramayana , Uttarakanda, 89.3-23). The Karddamas obtained their name from river Karddama in Persia/ancient Iran. Moreover, Sathapatha Brahmana attests a king named Bahlika Pratipeya as of the Kauravya lineage. Bahlika Pratipeya, as the name implies, was a prince of Bahlika (Bactria). Thus, the Bahli, Bahlika was the original home of the Kurus.

Thus Bahlika or Bactria may have constituted the Uttarakuru.

Mahabharata and Sumangalavilasini also note that the people of Kuru had originally migrated from Uttarakutru.

Bactria is evidently beyond the Hindukush i.e Himalaya. In ancient literature, Himalaya is said to be extending from eastern occean to western occean and even today is not separated from it (Kumarasambhavam, I, 1).

The above identifiaction of Uttarakuru comes from Dr M. R. Singh (Geographiacl Data in Early Puranas, 1972, pp 63-65).

Posted by: stefan


Central Asian origin of Kurus
Mahabharata and the Puranas attest the Kurus as the most important branch of the Ailas i.e descendents of king Puru-ravas Aila.

The princes of Aila lineage are also designated as Karddameyas. This designation connects the Ailas to river Karddama, located in Persia (Arthashastra, p 76, n.5). Hence the home of the Karddameyas or the Aila princes (Kurus) is often identified with Bahlika or Balkh (Bactria) in Iran and not in India proper (Studies in Antiquities, 234).

Puru-ravas Aila, first king in the line of ancestors of the Kurus above, is mentioned in Ramayana stories as the son of a ruler who came, in some remote antiquity, from Bahli (Balkh) in Central Asia to Mid India (Ramayana, VII,103.21-22).

Matsya Purana (12.14ff) distinctly mentions Illa-vrta varsa near Mountain Meru (Pamirs) as the realm of the parent of Puru-rava Aila. Raychaudhury locates Illa-vrita varsa in Central Asia. Mahabharata locates the birth place of king Puru-ravas Aila on a hill near the source of a river called Ganga (3.90.22-25).

This ancient Ganga is said to be different from the main Ganga and finds reference in ancient Sanskrit texts like Raghuvamsa, where it is found located in the neighborhood of the Kambojas of Pamirs/Badakshan. This river and river Sita (Yarkand) are said to be originating from Anavtapat Sarovar (in Pamirs or in Karakoram Jot, somewhere).

See references: (Bharata Bhumi aur Unke Nivasi, 1930, pp 297-304, Dr Jaychandra Vidyalankar; Abhidharamkosa, Vasubandhu, Kasi, 1930, 3/57; Yuan Chwang p 32-35).
Papancha-sudanai also refers to the Kurus, as colonists from trans-Himalayan region known as Uttarakuru (Dr B. C. Law, Ancient Indian Mid-Indian Kshatriya Tribes, p 16). .

The Kurus are associated with the Mahavrishas (See: Vedic Index, II, 279n) and the Bahlikas according to Mahabharata (II.63.2-7).

This association of the Kuru, Mahavrishas and the Bahlikas powerfully supports the northern origin of the Kurus. Shatapatha Brahmana also attests one king called Bahlika Pratipiya whom it designates as Koravya i.e one from Kuru lineage.

We also know that Bahlika Pratipiya is an important epic king of the Kurus. He was from the Puru-rava Aila lineage and hence from the line of Kurus of Kurukshetra.

The word Bahlika in the name of Kuru king Bahlika Pratipiya is his personal designation and points to northern (Bahlika or Bactria) origin of the Kurus of Middle country, in accordance with ancient naming conventions.

A section of the Kurus, known as Uttarakurus, is stated to be living beyond the Himalayan region in the days of Mahabharata and Aitreya Brahmana as we learn from Aitareya Brahmana verse (VIII.14).

It is also to be noted that the Himalaya of the ancient Indian traditions extended from the east occean to the west ocean, and even today is not separated from it (See: Kumarasambhavam by Kalidasa).

Mahabharata also attests that the ancestors of the Kauravas and Pandavas originally migrated from Uttarakuru (MBH 1/187/28).

Buddhaghosa also records a tradition which states that, when Vedic king Mandhata returned to Jambudvipa from his sojourn in the four Mahadipas, there were, in his retinue, a large number of the people of Uttarakuru. They all settled down in Jambudípa, and their settlement became known as Kururattha (Kuru Rashtra).

Majjhima Commentary (Vol I, p 184) also attests that the people of Kururatha had originally belonged to the Uttarakuru.

The above several references would indicate that the ancestors of the Kurus of Middle India had migrated from Bahlika/Uttarakuru which was a region stated to be to the north of Himalaya /Hindukush.

But Przyluski has also shown that Bahlika or Balkh was the original home the Madra peoples known as the Uttaramadras. This shows that Uttarakuru, the original home of the Kurus, was not precisely located in Bahlika, but probably in some nearby region, north of Bahlika in Central Asia, possibly bordering with it. We know that on the east side of Bahlika i.e. the Uttaramadra, was located the Parama-Kamboja (say Uttara-Kambojas) branch of the Kambojas.

Thus it appears likely that the Uttarakurus as immediate neighbors to the Uttaramadras/Bahlikas were located to north-east of Uttaramadras and to north of Parama-Kambojas (Badakshan/Pamir).

By the way, if Bahlika is to be insisted upon to be same as Uttarakuru, then one can assume that the Madras and Kurus in the remote antiquity were one people.

Later, the Kurus of the Middle country became known as Kuru proper or the Dakshina Kuru (MBH I, 109-10).


Posted by: stefan


In North India, the present-day state of Hamachal Pradesh, there are towns named Nako (a Bulgarian name), Sarakhan, Khanag (contain the high title of the ancient Bulgarians khan) (IN INDIA KHAN IS USED AS A LAST NAME, IT ALSO EXIST IN IRAN).

In the state of Radjestan, the following town names exist: Banskho, Ban, Sevar, Bajana, Khanja, Bhai, Nadbai and Ver. This also means that the name of the present-day town of Bansko derives not from the word bath but from ban, the noble title of the ancient Bulgarians. Sevar is the name of a Bulgarian khan from the Dulo clan, Bat Bajan is one of the sons of Khan Kubrat; the honorific bhai (bai) is used by the Indians when they address elders even today.

Bana is a gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh in India. Banas are descendents of King Banasur. Their capital was at Bayana in Bharatpur. The princess of Bayana was Usha married to Anirudh. There is a temple at Bayana constructed in memory of Usha. Virkvansi Jats and Sinsinwar Jats of Bharatpur later on occupied Bayana. Bana is a rigvedic ruling clan. Byawar near Ajmer and Bhadawar, Kadiyar Khanda in Bikaner, Giradhpur, Chitauli, and Chandaudi etc famous villages of Meerut are inhabited by Bana jats. Bana is a village in Churu district inhahited by Bana gotra Jats.

Balhara is a gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan. The Balhara (Balahara) gotra is also found among the Sikhs and Muslims.
Balhara Jats were the rulers in Sindh from 8th to 10th century. In 710 AD Muhammad bin Qasim occupied Sindh. Brahman Raja Dahir was the ruler of Sindh at that time. Raja Dahirs father Chach killed the Jat ruler of Deol state Sahasi Rai second of Rai Dynasty in year 650 AD by conspiracy and occupied the state. Other Jat states in Sindh were not powerful; they were also eliminated by the year 800 AD. This was the early period of Balhara Jat rulers in Sindh. Balharas ruled the area, which can be remembered as Bal Division. The area from Khambhat to Simari was under their rule and Manafir was their capital.

In Central India, the state of Maharashtra, there are the towns of Bor, Bori, Kanhan, Balharkhan, Vardha and the river Vardha. The latter toponym and hydronym are known on the Balkans by the name of Vardar (THE VARDAR IS THE BIGGEST RIVER IN PRESENT FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA, THE GREEK NAME FOR THAT RIVER IS AXIOS, ONE OF KUBRAT's SONS, KUBER, DID ARRIVE TO MACEDONIA WITH A GROUP OF PROTO-BULGARIANS BUT WERE LATER FORCED INTO HIS BROTHER's STATE ALONG THE DANUBE, ASPARUKH). In the state of Andra Pradesh, there are the towns of Eaval, Bodkhan, Khanapur.

Posted by: stefan


TARKHAN is Proto-Bulgarian word and the noble title of the ancient Bulgarians
Tarkhan is also a tribe from the Punjab area of Northwest India. Their traditional occupation is carpentry. Some scholar's (e.g. H.A. Rose) believe that they are descended from Sakas. Sikh Tarkhans are more comommonly known as Ramgarhia's from the famous Sikh Misl leader Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgharia of the Ramgharia Misl. Other famous Sikh's of Tarkhan origin are: Bhai Lalo (with whom Guru Nanak Dev ji stayed); Bhai Sukha Singh Kalsi, who helped behead Massa Rangar; Bhai Roop Chand Ji Khokar, trusted warrior of Guru Hargobind ji; Giani Zail Singh, Chief Minister of Punjab and President of India. American personalities from the Tarkhan community include the late Senator Dalip Singh Saund, the first Sikh Senator in the United States, who fought for Sikh land owning rights for in California. UK personalities include Judge Mota Singh, first non-white and Sikh Law Lord.

Posted by: stefan

Origin of the Saka Races

By Khshatrapa Gandasa

The Sakas
The Scythians inhabiting Central Asia at the time of Herodotus (5th century B.C.) consisted of 4 main branches known as the MassaGatae, Sacae, Alani, and Sarmatians, sharing a common language, ethnicity and culture. Ancient Greek (e.g. Herodotus, Pliny, Plotemy, Arrian) and Persian sources (Darius's historians) from the 5th century place the MassaGatea as the most southerly group in the Central Asian steppe. The earliest Scythians who entered the northern regions of South Asia were from this group. Historians derive "Jat" fom "Gatae", "Ahir" from "Avar", "Saka" from "Scythii", "Gujjar" from "Khazar", "Thakur" from "Tukharian", "Saurashtra" from "Saura Matii" or "Sarmatians", "Sessodia" (a Rajput clan) from "Sassanian", "Madra" from "Medes", "Trigartta" from "Tyri Getae" and "Sulika" from "Seleucids". "Massa" means "grand" or "big" in old Iranian - the language of the Scythians.

The early Sakas or Scythians are remembered by Greek (e.g. Herodotus, Megatheses, Pliny, Ptolemy) and Persian historians of antiquity as tall, large framed and fierce warriors who were unrivalled on the horse. Herodotus from the 5th century BC writes in an eye-witness account of the Scythians: "they were the most manly and law-abiding of the Thracian tribes. If they could combine under one ruler, they would be the most powerful nation on earth." According to their origin myth recorded by Herodotus, the Sakas arose when three things fell from the sky: the i) plough, ii) sword and iii) cup. The progenitor of the Sakas picked them up and hence the Saka race began its long history of conquering lands, releasing its bounties and enjoying the fruits of their labor (the cup has a ceremonial-spiritual-festive symbolism). The relevance of these symbols and codes of life and culture to the traditional Punjabi and northwest society are tantalizingly obvious. A branch of the Sakas kown as the Alani reached regions of Europe, Asia Minor and the Middle East. They have been connected to the Goths of France/Spain, Saxons and the Juts of Denmark.

Entry into India
Some of these Saka tribes entered northwest India through the Khyber pass, others through the more southerly Bolan pass which opens into Dera Ismail Khan in Sindh -- an entry point into Gujarat and Rajasthan. From here some invading groups went north (Punjab), others went south (Maharasthra), and others further east (UP, MP). This explains why some Jat, Gujjar and Rajput clans claim descent from Rajasthan (Chauhan, Powar, Rathi, Sial etc.) while others from Afghanistan (e.g. Mann, Her, Bhullar, Gill, Bajwa, Sandhu, etc.). This is supported by the fact that the oldest Rajput geneologies (10th centuries) do not extend into the northwest's Gandharan Buddhist period (400 B.C. - 900 AD).

Sir Cunningham (former Director General of Indian Archeological survey) writes:

"the different races of the Scythians which succesively appeared as conquerors in the border provinces of Persian and India are the following in the order of arrival: Sakas or Sacae (the Su or Sai of the Chinese - B.C. ?), Kushans (the great Yue-Chi (Yuti) of the Chinese - B.C. 163), Kiddarite or later Kushans (the little Yue-chi of the Chinese - A.D. 450) and Epthalites or White Huns (the Yetha of the Chinese - 470 A.D.).

Cunningham further notes that

". . . the successive Scythian invasions of the Sakas, the Kushans, and the White Huns, were followed by permanent settlements of large bodies of their countrymen . . ".

Cunningham and Tod regard the Huns to be the last Scythian wave to have entered India.

Herodotus reveals that the Scythians as far back as the 5th century B.C. had political control over Central Asia and the northern subcontinent up to the river Ganges. Later Indo-Scythic clans and dynasties (e.g. Mauryas, Rajputs) extended their control to other tracts of the northern subcontinent. The largest Saka imperial dynasties of Sakasthan include the Satraps (204 BC to 78 AD), Kushanas (50 AD - 380), Virkas (420 AD - 640) while others like the Mauryas (324 - 232 BC) and Dharan-Guptas (320 AD - 515) expanded their empires towards the east.

According to Ethnographers and historians like Cunningham, Todd, Ibbetson, Elliot, Ephilstone, Dahiya, Dhillon, Banerjea, etc., the agrarian and artisan communities (e.g. Jats, Gujars, Ahirs, Rajputs, Lohars, Tarkhans etc.) of the entire west are derived from the war-like Scythians who settled north-western and western South Asia in successive waves between 500 B.C. to 500 AD. Down to this day, the very name of the region `Gujarat' is derived from the name `Khazar', whilst `Saurashtra' denotes `Sun-worshipper', a common term for the Scythians. The Gujarat-Rajasthan region continues to be the most Scythic region in the world.

The oldest Rajputs clans found in southern and western Rajasthan arose much later from earlier Scythic groups; or are of Hun origin (5-6th century AD); and many are no doubt of mixed Scythic-Hun origin. Virtually all are of Scythic descent.

Posted by: stefan



The Bahlikas

The Bahlika finds mention in Atharvaveda, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Puranas, Vartikka of Katyayana, Brhatsamhita, Amarkosha etc and in the ancient Inscriptions. The inhabitants of Bahlika were known as the Bahlikas. The other variations of Bahlika are Bahli, Balhika, Vahlika, Valhika, Bahlava, Bahlam/Bahlim, Bahlayana and Bahluva etc.

According to Bhuvanakosha section of the Puranas, Bahlika was a Janapada located in Udichya (Uttarapatha) division [1].

Some hymns of Atharvaveda invoke the fever to go to the Gandharis, Mahavrsas (a tribe of Punjab), Mujavants and, further off, to the Bahlikas. Since Mujavant is the name of a hill (and a people) located in Hindukush/Pamir[2], therefore, the Bahlikas must lie beyond the the Hindukush ranges.

Atharvaveda-Parisista juxtaposes the Vedic Bahlikas with the Kambojas (i.e. Kamboja-Bahlika--)[3].

Besides Atharvaveda Parisista, several other ancient texts also associate the Bahlikas with the Kambojas.

Shakah.Kamboja.Bahlika.Yavanah.Paradastatha | [4]
Kritavarma tu sahitah KambojaivarBahlikaih | [5].
VanayujanParvatiyanKamboj.Aratta.Bahlikan |[6].
Kamboja.vishhaye jatair Bahlikaishcha hayottamaih | [7]
Kashmir recension of ancient Ramayana has the following reading:

Sanskrit Acharya Kshmendra of Kashmir has rendered the above text into his Ramayana Manjri as follows:


According to Dr S. K. Chaterjee, the Bahlika-Kamboja is a familiar group in the Mahabharata. Modern Balkh, the ancient Bahlika, though one of most ancient Aryan country, has now become Turkish in speech[10].

Besides Kambojas, Atharvaveda-Parisista also associates the Vedic Bahlikas with the Sakas, Yavanas and Tusharas (Saka-Yavana-Tukhara-Vahlikaishcha) [11].

This close association of the Bahlikas with the Kambojas as well as with Tusharas, Sakas and Yavanas in the Atharvaveda Parisista and in some other ancient sources suggests that the Bahlikas were located as a close neighbors to the Tusharas, Sakas, Yavanas and the Kambojas etc. Since the Kambojas were located in Badakshan and Pamirs, the Tusharas on the north of Pamirs and the Sakas on river Jaxartes and beyond, the Bahlikas or Bahlams, as neighbors to these people should be placed in Bactria.

According to the Puranic traditions, Dhrshta was one of the nine sons of Manu. From him came a number of clans called Dharshtakas who were reckoned as Kshatriyas. Shiva Purana attests that the Dharshtakas ruled over Bahlika. According to Mahabharata evidence, king of Bahlika was present at Syamantapanchaka at Kurukshetra on the occasion of solar eclipse.

The Ramayana seems to localize the Uttarakurus in Bahlika country [12]. According to it, Ila, son of Parjapati Karddama, king of Bahli (Bahlika) country, gave up Bahli in favor of his son Sasabindu and and founded a city of Pratisthana in Madhydesa. The princes of Aila dynasty (which is also the dynasty of Kurus) have been called Karddameya [13]. The Karddameyas obtained their names from river Kardama in Persia and therefore, their homeland is identified with Bahlika or Bactria [14]. This indicates that Bahlika or Bactria was the original home of the Kuru clans.

Vatsyayana in his Kamasutra records a peculiar custom prevalent among the Bahlikas i.e several young men marry a single woman in Bahlika country and in Strirajya [15]. It is a well known fact that Pandavas (i.e. Kurus) were married to one women, Draupadi. This again implies that the Kurus were originally a people of Bahlika which was identical with Uttarakuru (Dr M. R. Singh). Since Uttarakuru of the Aitareya Brahmana is said to lie beyond Himalaya, the Bahlika or Bactria is also beyond Hindukush (i.e. Himalayan range).

Satapatha Brahamana knows of a king named Bahlika Pratipeya whom it calls Kauravya (=Kaurava) [16]. It has been pointed out that this Kaurava king is identical with Bahlika Pratipeya of Mahabharata [17].

Besides the Kurus, the Madras were also originally a people living in/around Bahlika as is suggested by Vamsa Brahamana (1/18) of the Sama Veda which text refers to one Madragara Shaungayani as a teacher of Aupamanyava Kamboja. Dr Zimmer as well as authors of Vedic Index postulate a possible connection between the Iranian Uttaramadras and the Kambojas. Both these people were close neighbors in the north-western part of ancient India [18].

In Aitareya Brahmana, the Uttarakurus and Uttaramadras are stated as living beyond Himalaya (paren himvantam) [19].

This suggests that in the remote antiquity (Vedic age), the (Iranian settlement of) the Madras was located in parts of Bahlika (Bactria)--the western parts of the Oxus country. These Madras were, in fact, the Uttaramadras of the Aitareya Brahmana (VIII/14) [20]. However, in 4th c BC, this Bahlika/Bactria came under Yavana/Greek political control and thus the land started to be referenced as Bahlika-Yavana in some of ancient Sanskrit texts.

Thus, the foregoing discussion suggests that the Uttarakurus, Uttaramadras and Kambojas-- all were located beyond Himalaya/Hindukush ranges. Probably, the Uttarakurus were located in the northern parts of Bahlika, the Uttaramadras were in the southern parts of it and the Kambojas (=Parama Kambojas) were to the east of Bahlika, in the Transoxiana region. The ancient Bahlika appears to have spanned a large expanse of territory. The commentator of Harsha-Carita of Bana Bhatta also defines the Kambojas as Kambojah-Bahlika-Desajah i.e the Kambojas originated in/belonged to Bahlika. Thus, it seems likely that in the remote antiquity, the ancestors of the Uttarakurus, Uttaramadras and the Param-Kambojas were one people or otherwise were closely allied and had lived in/around Bahlika.

The Mehrauli Iron Inscriptions of king Chandra (4th c AD) make mention of Bahlikas as living on west side of river Indus. After crossing the seven mouths of river Indus, king Chandra is stated to have defeated the Bahlikas [21].

Amarkosha makes references to the Saffron of Bahlika and Kashmira countries [22]. Similar reference to Bahlika saffron has also been noticed in the fourth century AD Raghuvamsa play of poet Kalidasa. Raghuvamas states that saffron got adhered to Raghu's horses which they had to shed off by rolling on the banks of Oxus before Raghu undertook to attack the forces of the Hunas and the Kambojas located on either side of Oxus [23].

The Brahmanda Purana attests that river Chaksu (Oxus or Amu Darya) flowed through the land of Bahlavas (Bahlikas).

Brihat Samhita also has references on Bahlikas and mentions them together with Cinas, Gandharas, Sulikas, Paratas, Vaisyas etc.

The 10th century Kavyamimamsa of Rajshekhar lists the Bahlikas with the the Sakas, Tusharas, Vokanas, Hunas, Kambojas, Pahlavas, Tangana, Turukshas, etc. and states them as the tribes located in the Uttarapatha division. [24]

The Sammoha Tantra speaks of the Tantric culture of foreign countries like Bahlika, Kirata, Bhota, Cina, Mahacina, Parasika, Airaka (Iraq), Kamboja, Huna, Yavana, Gandhara and Nepal.

These above several references attest that the Bahlikas were originally located beyond the seven mouths of river Indus in country of Bactria. But later, one section of these people had moved from Balkh to Punjab while other appears to have moved to western India as neighbors to Saurashtras and Abhiras of Sauviras.

A passage in Ramayana attests that on way from Ayodhya to Kekaya, one had to pass through the country of Bahlikas, located somewhere in Punjab. This shows that ancient Bahlikas had moved to and planted a settlement in Punjab too [25]. This is also verified from epic Mahabharata.

Salya, the king of Madra referred to in the Mahabharata has been called a Bahlika Pungava i.e foremost among the Bahlikas [26].

Princess Madri from Madra Royal family has also been referred to as Bahliki i.e princess of Bahlika clan [27].

In digvijay expedition of Pandava Arjuna, there is a reference to a people called Bahlikas whom Arjuna had to fight with [28]. They are stated to be located on the southern side of Kashmir as neighbors to the Ursa and Sinhapura kindoms[29].

Dr P. E. Pargiter points out that there was a Bahlika settlement in the plains of Punjab alongside or south of Madradesa [30].

A third settlement of the Bahlikas is attssted have been in western India as neighbors to the Saurashtras. Ramayana refers to (Saurashtransbahlikanchandrachitranstathaivacha). There is a similar reference in the Padama Purana refering to (Surashtransabahlikassudrabhirastathaivacha). These ancient references attest Bahlikas as neighbors to the Saurashtras and the Abhiras. According to the Puranas, a branch of this people ruled in Vindhyas [31]. The Baraca of the Periplus has been identified with the Bahlika.

The Buddhist play Mudrarakshas of Visakhadutta as well as the Jaina works Parisishtaparvan refers to Chandragupta's alliance with Himalayan king Parvatka. The Himalyan alliance gave Chandragupta a composite army made up of the Yavanas, Kambojas, Sakas, Kiratas, Parasikas and Bahlikas as stated in the Mudra-rakashas [32].

The Bahlikas have been equated to Mlechchas in the later Brahmanical literature. There is a distinct prophetic statement in the Mahabharata that the mlechcha kings of Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Bahlikas etc will rule unrighteously in Kaliyuga.[33]

Bhurisrava, the king of Bahlika, was great warrior of epic times. He had participated in the Mahabharata war with one Askshauhini (division) army of Bahlika soldiers and had sided with the Kauravas against the Pandavas. Bhurisrava was one of eleven distinguished Generals or Senapatis of the Kaurava army appointed by Duryodhana[34].

Brahamanda Purana refers to the horses from Bahlika [35]. Similarily, Valmiki Ramayana refers to the horses of Bahlika, Kamboja and Vanayu countries as of excellent breed [36]. Upamitibhavaprapanchakatha singles out horses from Bahlika and those from Kamboja and Turuksha as the best[37]. The Abhidhanaratanamala also mentions examples of excellent horses from Bahlika, [Persia]], Kamboja, Vanayu, Sindhu and the land bordering on Sindhu [38].

Posted by: stefan


Posted by: anveshan

The Anveshan Theory of Creation & Creativity - 06/30/07 09:57 AM

Dear Stefan,

I went through your entire posts with interest. It is very informative. I am sure you have spent a lot of time in finding out the ancestry of Indo-Iranians or Indo Europeans to the Balkh.

After spending some time on your presentations and re-presentations, I also spent sometime myself to find out something about the Indo Europeans.

I found the Iranians (though presently they trace their re-christened paternity to David Via Mohammad of Arabia) claiming that all that is and was Aryan once belonged to them. Some 20,000 years hence there was painting and pottery, wheeled chariots, sparkling helmets and undoubtedly, the best of the horses.

The Anatolians, the Armenians, the Celts, the Germans, the Phrygians & the Romanics all claim that they were the real Proto(Indo Europeans).

But the Hellenes differed. They say that the first Erectus with a sapien mind and brain was a Greek, and without doubt, he spoke Greek. Not only the horse, the chariot and the spear but literature, art and architecture evolved there only. They call you (Bulgarians) asThracians and accuse you of stealing parts of their gods and goddesses, their linguistics, their Homer, Socrates(and his desciples), and Alexander and what not.(
In the Indian sense they are the Brahmins and you (the Indo-Europeans) the Sudroids!

The Egyptians (including the Nilo-Saharans) also accuse that the Indo-Europeans usurped their gods, goddesses, culture & civilization & made their coal-black pharaohs into Caucasian white.

The Chinese claim that the Peking Man ((homo erectus pekinensis) was their since three million years and started making Italian Soups before Italians were born!

The piece of the Earth in which I live believe that it is Aryan since the birth of the present & ruling Brahma; he created the triplets (A Sapien Sapien from his brains, two Sapiens from his heart and the kidneys) and excreted a sub-standard sub-species called the Sudroids some 2-3 billion years ago. (A Brahma’s day is 4.32 billion human years and it is not documented accurately at what exact time of the day he played this game of creation) (4,320,000 human years is 4.32 second to Brahma). After the Creation, he delivered the Vedas to the Sapien Sapien whom he created
out of his brains.

Brahma’s Father tongue was Sanskrit and the Vedas were delivered in Sanskrit(Just as Jehovah spoke in Hebrew and Allah spoke in Arabic). But Sanskrit is much older than Brahma himself. His Father, Brahman the Absolute Intelligence and the Primordial One also spoke Sanskrit. So Sanskrit is eternal, ageless and its influence rules beyond the space and time. I think you can have a rough guess of the antiquity of the language so divine.

Brahma habitated the three creatures and the sub-standard excreta in the Indus-Himalayan-Saraswati (wherever it is or it is not) belt. Those whom he created were, quite naturally, Nobles and the excreta was the Sudroid (to serve the Nobles). So this is the original Aryavarta and all other theories are false.

Since everybody claims of most superior of all origins, I am at my wits end. The Negroids do not accept me as I am not as black as them, you will not accept me as I am not as white as you, the Chinese will not accept me as I am not as yellowish as them and the Hellenes will not accept me as I have neither the color not the culture of them.

I was in search of my paternity. Though the Sudroids here would accept me, I did not want to be called as a progeny of an excreta, however divine it is.

I searched, re-searched and meditated. Finally I became enlightened. I could see that prior the births & deaths of many a Brahmas, my Pitr-pater-father was formed out a molecule of the Inreate Primordial Energy, Eternal & Ageless; he was a tailed being, a simian. He had blond hair here, black hair there, curled hair here and straight hair there. He had his upper lips thick and lower thin. Nostrils were there, nose was yet to grow in form. His one cheek was black, the other was yellow; body was dark and buttocks were red and thighs were white. The Absolute Intelligence infused an atom of intelligence into him and he started his motions. When the very first time he ‘desired’(masturbated) my great-great-grandma was born. Together they produced and reproduced and spread out . They inhabited trillions and trillions of planets and the earth is only one of the smallest among them.

As time went on, my Great Simian Grandpa’s progeny started losing their tails and their vertebra started straightening; this happened (and is still in the process of happening) at different places in the Cosmos at different times.

So the Aryans, the Austrics, the Mongols, the Nilo-Saharans and all originated from my Great Grandpa; all that is called civilization & culture has origins in him. Since I accept truthfully the parentage (of a lowly) him, I am the true son and all the civilization that was and is my true and legal heritage.

This is called the Anveshan Theory of Creation & Creativity. Whosoever believe in this theory shall dissolve himself into the Primordial Energy and enjoy perennial peace.

“Desire came upon that One in the beginning,
that was the first seed of mind.
Poets seeking in their heart with wisdom
found the bond of existence and non-existence.
Their cord was extended across.
Was there below?
Was there above?
There were seed-placers, there were powers.
There was impulse beneath,
there was giving forth above.
Who really knows?
Who will here proclaim it?
Whence was it produced?
Whence is this creation?
The gods came afterwards, with the
creation of this universe.
Who then knows whence it has arisen?

With great regards
Posted by: stefan


NAKO is a bulgarian name. I found this name in HIMACHAL PRADESH.
LOCATION: At an altitude of 3662 metres in the pooh sub-division of district Kinnaur. The lake is surrounded by willow and poplar trees - the village seems to be half buried by the lake's borders. On the northern side, are four Buddhist temples with stucco image impressions ascribed to saint Padmasambhava.

Georgi Stoikov Rakovski, a great son of Bulgaria and a great friend of India /
Author: Traikov, Veselin Nikolov, 1921-; Mukherjee, G.
Publication: New Delhi : Northern Book Centre, 1987

The Bulgarian and Indian people have had close contacts. The great Bulgarian revolutionary Georgi Rakovski has written that "The oldest civilization in the world was that of India and different beliefs and customs originated from it". The works of Gandhi, Tagore and Nehru have been translated into Bulgarian and have been popular here. Bulgarian poets Hristo Botev and Hristo Smirenski have exercised influence on Indian writers. During the 19th century, Bulgarian literature reflected the national consciousness and patriotic sentiments as did the writings in India during our freedom struggle. The contacts in the cultural sphere continue and I know that many Bulgarians travel to India to study literature, dance, music and philosophy. I was very happy to note that the Sofia University has a separate Indology Department which offers courses in the languages, history and philosophy of India. The interest amongst Bulgarians in Indian classical music, yoga and ancient Indian scriptures are only some of the aspects of Indian society that have been absorbed in this country. I am also glad to learn that Bulgarian Sportsmen and coaches have been training Indian sportspersons who get the benefit of the experience of your great sporting nation.

Links between India and Bulgaria stretch back in time and there are traces of contacts between the two countries as early as the 8th century A.D. Recent research studies have shown some similarity between the Brahmi script and the ancient Bulgarian script Glagolitsa. The great Bulgarian Revolutionary Rakovski, who opposed British colonialism and imperialism in India, even went to the extent of declaring that the forefathers of Bulgarians had originated from India. Indo-Bulgarian relations in modern times have traditionally been close, warm and friendly. Diplomatic ties were established in 1954.

Posted by: stefan


The name BAL and a relation with the Bulgarian ethnonim - BAL ( BALKH, BALHARA, BALKHAN Baluchistan... etc )


Bal is a gotra of Jats found in Haryana, India. This gotra traces its origin from Ghazni (now in Afghanistan). People belonging to the Bal gotra claim to be descendants of Suryavanshi Raja Bali. [1] But according to Bhagvat Dutt they belong to the Anu dynasty. According to the Mahabharata (Chapter -Adi Parva) King Bali is called the grandson on the maternal side of Raja Daksha. [2]

According to "Deva Samhita", some Jats are the descendants of the daughter of Raja Daksha. Many historians regard Bali as the descendant of Yayati. Bhagwat Dutt has proved that the Baluchies (of Baluchistan) are the descendant of Anu. [3]

Several people belonging to this gotra are are found in Haryana. The Sikh Jats belonging to this gotra are found in several big villages like Sathila, Batala in Amritsar.[4]

See the attachment - Anu_dynasty.jpg !!!
Posted by: stefan


The Proto-Bulgarian clan DULO and Dullar -- a clan of Jats


Dullar is a clan of Jats, found in the state of Haryana and Rajasthan in India. Dullars are in area near Mandawa, in villages of Jaisinghpura, Hanumanpura, Bhojasar, and other nearby villages. About the origin of this "family" name, a story goes, like there was a jagirdar of this region, who has four sons, one of whom was named "Dulla". On his name, descendents of "Dulla" has this name as their gotra.

The Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans (Bulgarian: ) is a short manuscript containing the names of some early Bulgarian rulers, their clans, the year of their ascending to the throne and the length of their rule, including the times of joint rule and civil war.

The Nominalia was found by the Russian scholar Alexander Popov, during his research on Russian chronographers. So far, three Russian copies of the document have been found. The earliest of them, the "Uvarov transcript"[1], dates from the 15th century and the other two, the Pogodin and Moscow transcripts, from the 16th century. There are certain differences in the names' spellings in the manuscripts. However, in none of them is the Central Asian title khan mentioned. Only Asparuh (the founder of Danube Bulgaria) and his five predecessors are assigned a title, and that is the Slavonic title knyaz.

Avitohol lived 300 years. His clan was Dulo and his year (of ascending to the throne) dilom tvirem.
Irnik lived 150 years. His clan Dulo and his year dilom tverim.
Gostun, the regent, 2 years. His clan Ermi and his year dokhs tvirem.
Kurt ruled 60 years. His clan Dulo and his year shegor vechem.
Bezmer 3 years and his clan Dulo and his year shegor vem (vechem).
These five princes ruled the kingdom over the other side of the Danube for 515 years with shaven heads and after that came to this side of the Danube Asparuh knyaz and until now (rules).

Asparuh knyaz 61 years (ruled). His clan Dulo and his year vereni alem.
Tervel 21 years. His clan Dulo and his year tekuchitem tvirem.
(An additional ruler is sometimes inserted here, depending on the reading.)

Sevar 15 years. His clan Dulo and his year toh altom.
Kormisosh 17 years. His clan Vokil and his year shegor tvirem.
Vinekh 7 years. His clan Ukil. And his year (imen)shegor alem.
Telets 3 years. His clan Ugain and his year somor altem.
Umor (ruled) 40 days. His clan Ukil and his year dilom tutom.
The italicized words are in the Bulgar language as given in the original manuscript and represent the year and month of ascending to the throne of each ruler according to the Bulgar calendar. Their translation is uncertain, but there appears to be a consensus that they are based on a system similar to the Chinese calendar (which was also adopted by many Turkic peoples and by the Mongols), with a cycle of 12 years, each bearing the name of an animal. The first word in each date is the name of the year, the second is an ordinal number designating the month.

There are widely diverging translations of the nominalia and especially of the Bulgar dates. This is partly due to the difficulty in identifying word boundaries, but the greatest differences today are due to the contrast between the traditional analysis of Bulgar as a Turkic language and Petar Dobrev's recently advanced proposal that it was an Iranian, more specifically Pamiri language. The "Turkic" reading, along with the "cyclic calendar" interpretation itself, was originally proposed by Finnish Slavist Jooseppi Julius Mikkola in 1913. Later, there have been various modifications and elaborations during the 20th century by scholars such as Géza Fehér, Omeljan Pritsak, and Mosko Moskov. Dobrev's "Iranian" reading actually preserves all but one of the previous translations of the year names, arguing that the Turkic names of the animals, far from proving that the Bulgars were Turkic, show that the Turkic peoples had borrowed these words from the Bulgars. He does change the numbers of the months.

The following table shows two interpretations - one of the earliest versions of the "classical" Turkic one by Zlatarski (1918, adhering closely to Mikkola) and the "Iranian" one by Dobrev (1994).

Posted by: stefan



See the attachment file.jpg !!

Title :

From :
Library "Bulgarian Eternity"

Author :
s.r. Dr. Peter Dobrev

Price : 5 €

In brief :

The researcher Peter Dobrev scarcely needs representation. His monography views the most ancient Bulgarian states in the East – Balhara and Balgar, as well as their characteristic economic and cultural centres and traditions. Based upon sources the author proves the existence of Pamir civilization in Antiquity and the role of the Bulgarians in its formation.

Posted by: stefan


The sons of PRATIPA ---> SANTANU and BAHLIKA


Shantanu is a king of Hastinapura in the great epic of the Mahabharata. He is a descendant of the Bharata race, of the lunar dynasty and the ancestor of the Pandavas and the Kauravas. The Rigveda hymn 10.98 mentions Santanu. He was the youngest son of King Pratipa of Hastinapur and had been born in the latter's old age. The eldest son Devapi suffered from leprosy and abdicated his inheritance to become a hermit. The middle son Bahlika devoted his life to conquer the old Aryan territoties near Balkh and hence, Shantanu become the King of Hastinapur by default.


Kings of Bahlika

Bahlika the son of Pratipa
Bahlika the son of Pratipa is mentioned in the following passages in Mahabharata:-

Kuru king Dritarashtra's words to his son Duryodhana:- Even the eldest son may be passed over and deprived of the kingdom, and younger sons may, in consequence of their respectful behaviour to the aged, obtain the kingdom. So also, conversant with every virtue there was my father’s grandfather, king Pratipa', who was celebrated over the three worlds. Unto him, were born three sons, Of them, Devapi was the eldest, Vahlika the next and Santanu of great intelligence, who was my grandfather, was the youngest. Devapi, endued with great energy, was virtuous, truthful in speech, and ever engaged in waiting upon his father. But that best of kings had a skin-disease. Popular with both the citizens and the subjects of the provinces, respected by the good, and dearly loved by the young and the old, Devapi was liberal firmly adhering to truth, engaged in the good of all creatures, and obedient to the instructions of his father as also of the Brahmanas. He was dearly loved by his brother Vahlika as also the high-souled Santanu. Great, indeed, was the brotherly love that prevailed between him and his high-souled brothers. In course of time, the old and best of kings, Pratipa, caused all preparations to be made according to the scriptures for the installation of Devapi (on the throne). Indeed, the lord Pratipa caused every auspicious preparation. The installation of Devapi, however, was forbidden by the Brahmanas and all aged persons amongst the citizens and the inhabitants of the provinces. Hearing that the installation of his son was forbidden, the voice of the old king became choked with tears and he began to grieve for his son. Thus, though Devapi was liberal, virtuous, devoted to truth, and loved by the subjects, yet in consequence of his skin-disease, he was excluded from his inheritance. The gods do not approve of a king that is defective of a limb. Thinking of this, those bulls among Brahmanas forbade king Pratipa to install his eldest son. Devapi then, who was defective of one limb, beholding the king (his father) prevented (from installing him on the throne) and filled with sorrow on his account, retired into the woods. As regards Vahlika, abandoning his (paternal) kingdom he dwelt with his maternal uncle. Abandoning his father and brother, he obtained the highly wealthy kingdom of his maternal grandfather. With Vahlika’s permission, Santanu of world-wide fame, on the death of his father (Pratipa), became king of Kuru Kingdom. (5,149)

Kuru King Pratipa had three sons, viz Devapi, Valhika and Santanu. (1,95)
Bhishma consulted his uncle Valhika to clear doubts about giving in marriage, the tree maidens that he brought from Kasi Kingdom to his step-brother Vichitravirya (13,44).
Yudhisthira addressed Bahlika as son of Pratipa, in a message sent to Kauravas.(5,23)
Yudhisthira also addressed the Kurus of the Pratipa dynasty viz the Vahlikas(5,57)

Bahlika the father of Somadatta
The lineage that links Bahlika with the Pandavas and Kauravas, as per Mahabharata is as follows:-

Pratipa -> Devapi (became a sage)
Pratipa -> Bahlika -> Somadatta -> Bhurisravas, Sala
Pratipa -> Santanu -> Bhishma
Pratipa -> Santanu -> Vichitravirya -> Dhritarashtra -> Kauravas
Pratipa -> Santanu -> Vichitravirya -> Pandu -> Pandavas
A Bahlika king took part in the Kurukshetra War. He was related to the Kauravas and the Pandavas, and was a king in the Kuru dynasty. This make Bahlika older than Bhishma, making him the oldest among, the warriors who fought the Kurukshetra War. But there is references in Mahabharata that Bhishma was the oldest warrior in the Kurukshetra War. So there could be some missing king in this lineage of Bahlikas. It could be that Somadatta's father who took part in the war was the son of the Bahlika mentioned at (Mbh 1,95) as Pratipa's son.

Pratipa -> Devapi (became a sage)
Pratipa -> Bahlika -> Bahlika -> Somadatta -> Bhurisravas, Sala
Pratipa -> Santanu -> Bhishma
Pratipa -> Santanu -> Vichitravirya -> Dhritarashtra -> Kauravas
Pratipa -> Santanu -> Vichitravirya -> Pandu -> Pandavas
This makes the warrior Bahlika, contemporary to Bhishma and his son Somadatta, contemporary to Dhritarashtra. Somadatta's sons Bhurisravas and Sala also took part in the Kurukshetra War. Thus four Bahlika war-heroes, spanning three generations, fought the Kurukshetra war. King Bahlika was present in the self choice event of Draupadi the princess of Panchala Kingdom. (1,188). He also came to the Rajasuya sacrifice of Pandava king Yudhisthira, brought there by Nakula (2-33,34). King Bahlika was present with the Kurus of Hastinapura, on almost all the important events that happened in Hastinapura:- on the arrival of Kunti with the young Pandavas (1,126), on the occasion of a tournament of war-craft by the Kuru princes (1,136), When the Pandavas left Hastinapura to the town of Varanavata (1,145), during the play of dice (2-62,72,76,79)(3,13), during the planning of Kurukshetra War (5-62,63) etc

Bahlika king and his sons and grandsons disliked Duryodhana, but was allied to his father Dhritarshtra and grandfather Bhishma (5-58,65,80,83,89,90,124,128,129,131
Bhishma's rating of Vahlika as a car-warrior:-Vahlika is in my judgment, an Atiratha.(5,168)
Bhurisravas and Somadatta (denoted as Vahlika) were two among the eleven generals of Kaurava army, leading an Akshouhini of troops (5,156)

Bhalika fught as a warrior in Kurukshetra War under the generalissimos viz Bhishma (6-17,45,48,59,60,76,82,93,97,103,105,118) and Drona (7-20,30,37,72,83,92,93,118,152
Bahlika was slain by Bhima (7,154). Somadatta (7,159) and Bhurisravas (7,140) were slain by Satyaki in the Kurukshetra War. The death of all these three in the war is mentioned together at (8,1), (9-2,24,32,63), (10,9), (15-29,32) At (8,5), the slain Bahlika is describeds as grandfather of Dhritarashtra. At (11,22) he is described as Pratipa's son. This is the only two places where both the Bahlikas, the son of Pratipa and the father of Somadatta were described as same. King Bahlika's funeral rites were performed by Dhritarashtra (15-11,14)
Pandava general Satyaki's father Sini, and Somadatta were of the same generation. They were enemies. When Sini lived at Surasena Kingdom, he battled with Somadatta and defeated him due to a dispute on a maiden (Vasudeva Krishna's mother Devaki). Satyaki and Somadatta's son Bhurisravas, were of the same generation and were enemies too. (7,141)
Under the generalissimo Bhishma stood Warrior Sala who was a countryman of the Valhikas (6,20) .His battles are described at (6-61,86) (7-35,101,153,161). He is slain in battle, by 5th son of Draupadi Shrutashan, as his death is mentioned at (9,2), (18,5)

Posted by: stefan

DZOG CHEN - a spiritual practice OF THE BULGARIANS - 11/30/07 07:53 AM

Dzogchen teachings found a strong foothold in the ancient kingdom of Shang-Shung which existed until the eighth century AD. From Shang-Shung Dzogchen teachings spread into the Nyingma sect of Tibet and continued to exist in Yungdrung Bon. Bon contributed greatly to the Tibetan culture and to the Nyingma and later sects of Tibetan (Vajrayana) Buddhism, and probably had a profound affect on what later became the Jain and Shakyamuni branches of Buddhism. Later contact and consolidation of this shared gnosis between the western gnostic schools and the later Bonpo and Nyingma schools came about via the white robed missionary elect of Mani, who like their forerunners from Tazig, arrived in Tibet with their white robes, long hair, and advanced gnosis.

Teh Dagor Mountain in Nyima County is, according to legend, where various deities gather, and is also the most important of the 360 mountain peaks in Zhangzhong. At its foot is the Tangra Yumco Lake. Both the peak and the lake are considered holy by Buddhist worshippers. Connected to the holy lake is Comoin Legyi Wangmoche Lake, named after the deity who is in charge of 180 rivers and 180 lakes. Resembling a Diamond Club in shape, the lake is surrounded by mountains from which a stream empties into the lake. Around the lake are four fountains, where pilgrims take a dip when they come to worship the holy lake. They believe that the fountain water will help them cleanse themselves of their sins and cure their illnesses. Tangra Qoinzong to the east is, according to the legend, where the palace of King Limo of the Zhangzhong State was in ancient times. This is also the place where Master Tarmitaige practiced buddhism. On the cliffs there are many Tibetan letters and palm signs, all naturally formed. Both Dagor and Tangra are Zhangzhong words. In the mountain caves in Dagor and in the caves around the Tangra Yumco Lake are stone gongs, also all naturally formed. The locals refer to the "Kangdese and Mampang Yumco Lake in the upper part, the Dagor Snow Mountain and the Tangra Yumco Lake in the middle part, and the Nyainqentanglha Peak and the Nam Co Lake in the lower part" as the three famous mountains and lakes in Tibet. Each year, there are numerous pilgrims who come to take ritual walks around them.

TANGRA is the buddhist goddess TARA in BON religion.

TANGRA YUMCO means YUM, YUMKA - a mother -- see YAB - YUM
Posted by: stefan

Re: DZOG CHEN - a spiritual practice OF THE BULGARIANS - 12/01/07 09:06 PM

SHAMBALA is near TANGRA YUMCO LAKE. See the attachment.

The GOD TANGRA is YAB and GODDESS TARA/TARGO is YUM in BON PO religion. This is the first DZOG CHEN COUPLE.
Posted by: stefan

Re: DZOG CHEN - a spiritual practice OF THE BULGARIANS - 12/10/07 11:59 AM

The word YAB derive from the kushan's title YABGU.

The Kushan Empire (c. 1st–3rd centuries) was a state that at its height, about 105–250, stretched from what is now Tajikistan to Afghanistan, Pakistan and down into the Ganges river valley in northern India. The empire was created by the Kushan tribe of the Yuezhi confederation, an Indo-European people[2] from the eastern Tarim Basin, China, possibly related to the Tocharians. They had diplomatic contacts with Rome, Persia and China, and for several centuries were at the center of exchange between the East and the West.

Yuezhi , Yeh-Chih or Da Yuezhi , also , "Great Yuezhi") "The Great Clan of Yue", is the Chinese name for an ancient Central Asian people. There are numerous theories about the derivation of the name Yuezhi and none has yet found general acceptance.[5][6] In Chinese the name translates literally as 'Moon Clan.' According to Zhang Guang-da the name Yuezhi is a transliteration of their own name for themselves, the Visha (the tribes), being called the Vijaya in Tibetan.[7]. They are believed by many scholars to have been the same as or closely related to the Indo-European people named Tocharians by ancient Greeks. They were originally settled in the arid grasslands of the eastern Tarim Basin area, in what is today Xinjiang and western Gansu, in China, before they migrated to Transoxiana, Bactria and then northern South Asia, where they formed the Kushan Empire.

Early Kushans

Head of a Kushan prince (Khalchayan palace, Uzbekistan).Some traces remain of the presence of the Kushan in the area of Bactria and Sogdiana. Archaeological structures are known in Takht-I-Sangin, Surkh Kotal (a monumental temple), and in the palace of Khalchayan. Various sculptures and friezes are known, representing horse-riding archers[6], and significantly men with artificially deformed skulls, such as the Kushan prince of Khalchayan[7] (a practice well attested in nomadic Central Asia). On the ruins of ancient Hellenistic cities such as Ai-Khanoum, the Kushans are known to have built fortresses. The earliest documented ruler, and the first one to proclaim himself as a Kushan ruler was Heraios. He calls himself a "Tyrant" on his coins, and also exhibits skull deformation. He may have been an ally of the Greeks, and he shared the same style of coinage. Heraios may have been the father of the first Kushan emperor Kujula Kadphises.

Direct archaeological evidence of a Kushan rule of long duration is basically available in an area stretching from Surkh Kotal, Begram, the summer capital of the Kushans, Peshawar, Taxila and Mathura, the winter capital of the Kushans.[8]

Other areas of probable rule include Khwarezm (Russian archaeological findings)[9] Kausambi (excavations of the Allahabad University),[10] Sanchi and Sarnath (inscriptions with names and dates of Kushan kings),[11] Malwa and Maharashtra,[12] Orissa (imitation of Kushan coins, and large Kushan hoards).[13]

The recently discovered Rabatak inscription tends to confirm large Kushan dominions in the heartland of India. The lines 4 to 7 of the inscription[14] describe the cities which were under the rule of Kanishka, among which six names are identifiable: Ujjain, Kundina, Saketa, Kausambi, Pataliputra, and Champa (although the text is not clear whether Champa was a possession of Kanishka or just beyond it).[15][16][17]

Northward, in the 2nd century CE, the Kushans under Kanishka made various forays into the Tarim Basin, seemingly the original ground of their ancestors the Yuezhi, where they had various contacts with the Chinese. Both archaeological findins and literary evidence suggest Kushan rule, in Kashgar, Yarkand and Khotan.[18]

As late as the 3rd century CE, decorated coins of Huvishka were dedicated at Bodh Gaya together with other gold offerings under the "Enlightenment Throne" of the Buddha, suggesting direct Kushan influence in the area during that period.[19]

Kujula Kadphises (30–80)

Tetradrachm of Kujula Kadphises (30–80 CE) in the style of Hermaeus.According to the Hou Hanshu: "the prince (xihou) of Guishuang (Badakhshan and the adjoining territories north of the Oxus), named Kujula Kadphises (Ch: , "Qiujiuque") attacked and exterminated the four other princes (xihou). He set himself up as king of a kingdom called Guishuang."[20]

He invaded Anxi (Parthia) and took the Gaofu (Kabul) region. He also defeated the whole of the kingdoms of Puda, and Jibin (Kapisha-Gandhara). Qiujiuque (Kujula Kadphises) was more than eighty years old when he died."

These conquests probably took place sometime between 45 and 60, and laid the basis for the Kushan Empire which was rapidly expanded by his descendants.

Kujula issued an extensive series of coins and fathered at least two sons, Sadaa (who is known from only two inscriptions, especially the Rabatak inscription, and apparently never have ruled), and seemingly Vima Taktu.

Kujula Kadphises was the great grandfather of Kanishka.

Vima Taktu (80–105)

Bronze coin of Vima Takto. Corrupted Greek legend .] "Basileu[s] Basileur [Megas?]": "The King of Kings, [Great?] Saviour".Vima Takt[u] (or Tak[to], Ancient Chinese: Yangaozhen ) is not mentioned in the Rabatak inscription (Sadashkana is instead. See also the reference to Sims-William’s article below). He was the predecessor of Vima Kadphises, and Kanishka I. He expanded the Kushan Empire into the northwest of the Indian subcontinent. The Hou Hanshu says:

"His [Kujula Kadphises'] son, Yangaozhen (Vima Taktu), became king in his place. He conquered Tianzhu (Northwestern India) and installed a General to supervise and lead it. The Yuezhi then became extremely rich. All the kingdoms call [their king] the Guishuang (Kushan) king, but the Han call them by their original name, Da Yuezhi."[21]

Vima Kadphises (105–127)

Vima Kadphises.Vima Kadphises (Kushan language: ) was a Kushan emperor from around 90–100 CE, the son of Sadashkana and the grandson of Kujula Kadphises, and the father of Kanishka I, as detailed by the Rabatak inscription.

Vima Kadphises added to the Kushan territory by his conquests in Afghanistan and north-west India. He issued an extensive series of coins and inscriptions. He was the first to introduce gold coinage in India, in addition to the existing copper and silver coinage.

Kanishka I (127–147)

Kanishka I.The rule of Kanishka I, the second great Kushan emperor, fifth Kushan king, who flourished for at least 28 years from c. 127. Upon his accession, Kanishka ruled a huge territory (virtually all of northern India), south to Ujjain and Kundina and east beyond Pataliputra, according to the Rabatak inscription:

"In the year one, it has been proclaimed unto India, unto the whole realm of the governing class, including Koonadeano (Kaundinya< Kundina) and the city of Ozeno (Ozene, Ujjain) and the city of Zageda (Saketa) and the city of Kozambo (Kausambi) and the city of Palabotro (Pataliputra) and so long unto (i.e. as far as) the city of Ziri-tambo (Sri-Champa)." Rabatak inscription, Lines 4–6.

The Qila Mubarak fort at Bathinda was built by Kanishka.His territory was administered from two capitals: Purushapura (now Peshawar in northern Pakistan) and Mathura, in northern India. He is also credited (along with Raja Dab) for building the massive, ancient Fort at Bathinda (Qila Mubarak), in the modern city of Bathinda, Indian Punjab.

The Kushans also had a summer capital in Bagram (then known as Kapisa), where the "Begram Treasure", comprising works of art from Greece to China, has been found. According to the Rabatak inscription, Kanishka was the son of Vima Kadphises, the grandson of Sadashkana, and the great-grandson of Kujula Kadphises. Kanishka’s era is now generally accepted to have begun in 127 on the basis of Harry Falk’s ground-breaking research.[22][23] Kanishka’s era was used as a calendar reference by the Kushans for about a century, until the decline of the Kushan realm.

Vasishka was a Kushan emperor, who seems to have a short reign following Kanishka. His rule is recorded as far south as Sanchi (near Vidisa), where several inscriptions in his name have been found, dated to the year 22 (The Sanchi inscription of "Vaksushana" – i. e. Vasishka Kushana) and year 28 (The Sanchi inscription of Vasaska – i. e. Vasishka) of the Kanishka era.

Huvishka (140–183)
Huvishka (Kushan: , "Ooishki") was a Kushan emperor from the death of Kanishka (assumed on the best evidence available to be in 140 CE) until the succession of Vasudeva I about forty years later. His rule was a period of retrenchment and consolidation for the Empire. In particular he devoted time and effort early in his reign to the exertion of greater control over the city of Mathura.

Vasudeva I (191–225)

Gold coin of Vasudeva I.Vasudeva I (Kushan: "Bazodeo", Chinese: "Bodiao") was the last of the "Great Kushans." Named inscriptions dating from year 64 to 98 of Kanishka’s era suggest his reign extended from at least 191 to 225 CE. He was the last great Kushan emperor, and the end of his rule coincides with the invasion of the Sassanids as far as northwestern India, and the establishment of the Indo-Sassanids or Kushanshahs from around 240 CE.

The title Yabgu was borrowed by the Türks from the Kushan political tradition, preserved by the Hephtalites.[3]

Friedrich Hirth suggested that the earliest title "Yabgu" was recorded in literary Chinese with regard to Kushan contexts with transliteration Xihou "e-khu (yephou)" [4] (Chinese: literally "United/Allied/Confederated Prince"). However, the Chinese does not make clear whether the title was the one bestowed on foreign leaders or rather a descriptive title indicating that they were allied, or united.


THE NAMES of TANGRA are -- KHAN TENGRI, TENGRI, TINGRI and TARA - see mongolian and turk couple TENGRI - UMAI like SHIVA - UMA couple.

Posted by: stefan

Re: DZOG CHEN - a spiritual practice OF THE BULGARIANS - 12/11/07 09:05 AM

Seventeen Tantras

Known by various names,
· rgyud bcu bdun 17 Tantras
· rdzogs chen gyi rgyud bcu bdun 17 Dzogchen Tantras
· man ngag sde'i rgyud bcu bdun 17 Mannagde Tantras
· yang gsang 'od gsal gyi rgyud bcu bdun 17 Tantras of Innermost Luminosity
with bcu dun being '17' and rgyud meaning 'Tantra', these texts of the Mannagde (Esoteric Instructions) Class belong to the fourth of the Four Cycles of Nyingtig teachings of the Dzogchen tradition.

Often, as can be seen in items 1 and 13, the texts are known by various short and long forms of their Tibetan name, making identification rather difficult for someone not acquainted with the language. In addition, items 3 and 14 illustrate how Tibetan titles can be translated in various ways without any such translation being more accurate; and a comparison between items 1 and 12 shows how important it is to pay attention to the Tibetan terms as the translations almost appear as the same for both.
1. Natural Arising of Awareness (rig pa rang shar) or Great Tantra of Self-Arising Awareness (rig pa rang shar chen po'i rgyud) or Rangshar Tantra (rang shar gyi rgyud)
2. Mirror of the Heart of Vajrasattva (rdo rje sems dpa' snying gi me long)
3. Lion's Perfect Expressive Power (seng ge rtsal rdzogs), Tantra of the Perfected Lion (seng ge rtsal rdzogs kyi rgyud)
4. Absence of Letters (yi ge med pa), Letterless Tantra and/or Tantra of No Letters (yi ge med pa'i rgyud)
5. Beauteous Good Auspices (bkra shis mdzes ldan), Tantra of Graceful Auspiciousness (bkra shis mdzes ldan gyi rgyud), Tantra of Great Auspicious Beauty (bkra shis mdzes ldan chen po'i rgyud)
6. Penetration of Sound (sgra thal 'gyur), Dra Talgyur Root Tantra (sgra thal 'gyur rtsa ba'i rgyud)
7. Mirror of the Heart of Samantabhadra (kun tu bzang po thugs kyi me long), Tantra of Samantabhadra's Mind Mirror (kun bzang thugs kyi me long gi rgyud)
8. Blazing Lamp (sgron ma 'bar ba), Blazing Lamp Tantra and/or Tantra of the Radiant Lamp (sgron ma 'bar ba'i rgyud)
9. Studded Jewels (nor bu bkra bkod), Array of Fine Gemstones and/or Norbu Trako (nor bu 'phra bkod), Tantra of Studded Jewels (nor bu phra bkod kyi rgyud)
10. Coalescence of Sun and Moon and/or Union of Sun and Moon (nyi zla kha sbyor), Tantra of the Union of Sun and Moon (nyi zla kha sbyor gyi rgyud)
11. Pearl Necklace (mu tig phreng ba), Pearl Garland Tantra (mu tig phreng ba'i rgyud) and/or (mu tig 'phreng ba'i rgyud)
12. Natural Liberation of Awareness (rig pa rang grol), Tantra of Self-liberated Awareness (rig pa rang grol gyi rgyud)
13. Six Spheres (klong drug; klong drug pa) or Sixfold Expanse (klong drug gi rgyud) or Six Spheres of Samantabhadra (kun tu bzang po klong drug pa'i rgyud)
14. Naturally Born Perfection (rdzogs pa rang byung) and/or Self-Existing Perfection
15. Black Wrathful Goddess (nag mo khros ma); referring to a black form of Vajrayogini (khros ma nag mo)
16. Blazing Relics of the Buddha-Body (sku gdung 'bar ba), Tantra of Shining Relics (sku gdung 'bar ba'i rgyud)
17. Mound of Gemstones (rin chen spungs), Tantra of the Jewel Mound and/or Tantra of Piled Gems (rin chen spungs pa'i rgyud)


The sacred sign of the PROTOBULGARIANS is : I Y I



Kha sbyor
Kha sbyor gyi rgyud
Kha sbyor gyi yan lag bdun
Kha sbyor gyi lus
Kha sbyor thig le
Kha sbyor bdun ldan
Kha sbyor yan lag bdun
Kha sbyor yan lag bdun ldan
Kha sbyor yan lag bdun ldan gyi go phang
Kha sbyor rlung

Very interesting in this connection is the history of the religious cult of the seven celestial bodies. It appears for the first time in the Shumer-Accadian civilization where the names of the Sun, the Moon and the five planets, known to the Ancient world, are always accompanied by the word DINGIR god, akin to the Elam word TANRU. The Sun is called Dingir-UTU (Sun God) by the Shumerians, the Moon is called Dingir-sin (Moon God), etc. From this very part of the world the cult of the celestial bodies spread radially to the East and the West among the ancient peoples Assyrians, Indo-Iranians, Hittites, Celts, Romans, etc. Widely spread are also words like DINGIR and TANRU or the like: the Assyrian word TANRA heavenly body, the Indian TARA star, the Hittite TARA heavenly light, the Celtic TARAN god of thunder, the Anglo-Saxon THUNDER, the Pamir word TANDRA lightening, and the remotest cognate the Turkic word TENGRI (god of the bright blue sky).
Old Bulgarian religion, with its devotion to the seven celestial bodies and the Supreme God, called Tangra and Edfu, is part of this religious system. What is more, it does not represent the most simplified Turkic variant but the initial well developed system. This is not primitive Asiatic shamanism, as interpreted by some authors, but one of the oldest religions of humanity. It is high time to acknowledge this fact.

It has been mentioned: "The Sammoha Tantra speaks of the Tantric culture of foreign countries like Bahlika, Kirata, Bhota, Cina, Mahacina, Parasika, Airaka, Kamboja, Huna, Yavana, Gandhara and Nepal".

Posted by: stefan

Re: DZOG CHEN - a spiritual practice OF THE BULGARIANS - 12/11/07 02:10 PM

Around 1951 Tsondu reached the Garuda Valley near the western part of Mt. Kailash. At the Gurgyam Dongak Dak Gyay Ling monastery, he met Chungtul Jigme Namkhai Dorje Rinpoche. Chungtul Rinpoche had come from eastern Tibet and had settled in what had once been a strong Bon environment. The Garuda Valley by this time, however, had become a strong Nyingma establishment. Chungtul Rinpoche skillfully combined elements of both Bon and Nyingma teachings in order to attend to the needs of the local population; and, in this way, was able to propagate the Bon doctrine in the Garuda Valley again.

When Tsondu arrived at the Gurgyam monastery, it was not his intention to remain long. He explained to Chungtul Rinpoche that he wanted to continue his pilgrimage and return to Tangra. Chungtul Rinpoche, with another idea in mind, told Tsondu that he had reestablished Bon in the Garuda Valley; and that as he was getting older, he needed someone to remain and train his yogis and monks. He requested Tsondu to renounce his return to Tangra as the Bon religion was well established there; and instead, create a three-year retreat center at Gurgyam monastery. Tsondu, recognizing that this would be more useful than continuing his pilgrimage, acceded to Chungtul Rinpoche=s request and became the teacher of the retreat center.
Posted by: stefan

Re: DZOG CHEN - a spiritual practice OF THE BULGARIANS - 12/12/07 12:03 PM

Kathri Ceremony at Tsirang

His Holiness Je Khenpo arrived Tsirang on 29th September to bless the public of Tsirang. Thousands of devotees gathered to receive the initiation ceremony. The Kathri ceremony will commence with effect from 29th September to 4th October. The five days kathri ceremony ended with Dorji Puen ceremony among the devotees. The Kawang and Tshewang for the general public have begun and the three days Moenlam Choenmo will start from 13th of September. The three weeks program would conclude by Tangra, a special ceremony in gratitude of the protecting deities of Bhutan for the peaceful conclusion of the Kathri ceremony.

Tangra, a special ceremony in gratitude of the protecting deities of Bhutan

There is in BULGARIA one small town named BHUTAN. This is a fact !!!

Posted by: stefan

Re: DZOG CHEN - a spiritual practice OF THE BULGARIANS - 12/12/07 09:30 PM

New Year meditation of Hungrel Drung Drung from Bhutan !

Every year, at the close of the previous year and the beginning of the New Year, Hungrel Drung Drung entered into meditation for one month. The practice of conducting prayer ceremonies such as Tangra for his Choechong (deity), and Kangsha, which came to be known as Doechung, were held after he ended his meditations.
Posted by: stefan

Re: DZOG CHEN - a spiritual practice OF THE BULGARIANS - 12/13/07 02:31 PM,3469,0,0,1,0

Kalmykia, Russia -- Thousands residents of the Russian Buddhist republic of Kalmykia gathered yesterday in Elista’s magnificent new temple “The Golden Abode of the Buddha Shakyamuni” to take part in a large scale ritual intended to remove obstacles on the path of the spiritual development of Buddhist teaching.

We have heard much about the powerful and beautiful Tantric rituals of the Guydmed monastery, but thought that we could see them only in the south of India,” said Tatiana Liutovich, who came to Kalmykia from the city of Krasnodar. “We are truly grateful to Telo Tulku Rinpoche for inviting the Tantric monks of Gyudmed, allowing us to become witnesses to this amazing ceremony”.

”We are delighted that Tibetan Buddhism is receiving a second birth on Russian soil,” she added.

Subsequently, Tibetan and Kalmyk monks will conduct Yangdrub, a ritual of flowering and wellbeing and close with the Tangra Kanso, a ritual which turns to the Dharma protector deities for aid and support.

Posted by: stefan

Re: DZOG CHEN - a spiritual practice OF THE BULGARIANS - 12/13/07 03:01 PM

The mithical union of TANGRA and TARGO - the legend of Tibet

Mount Targo in northern Tibet
(Photographs by Hildegard Diemberger)

Tangra Yumtsho lake - female partner of mount Targo

It is an old religious belief in Tibet that the vitality (Tib.: bla) of a person, a family or a population is connected with a locality (Tib.: bla gnas) and that a destruction of this relationship has disastrous consequences. While religious considerations in Tibet are intermingled with geographical or topographical factors, sacred landscape is only one facet of the much more complex notion of territory. A central feature of this complex is the cult of sacred mountains, which are perceived as residences of mountain-gods. In pre-dynastic Tibet and in the early time of the Tibetan Kingdom (6th to 7th century A.D. onwards) mountain, clan, and territory formed a structural unit.
The worship of mountain gods and other local deities is not just a minor domain of Tibetan religion but a more general political and cultural phenomenon. The mountain cult is an essential element in Tibetan culture and is part of collective identities which are expressed in the form of specific local economic and political behaviour. Buddhism only rarely completely erased the ancient cults linked to the sacred perception of landscape, and these have shaped the religious life of the Tibetan communities throughout their history up to the present day. In the main centres many cults were integrated and radically reformed by Buddhist tradition. In some areas "archaic" phenomena have survived under various forms the framework of local traditions and in the ritual practices of many village ritual specialists. Although Buddhism has significantly moulded the mountain cult over the centuries, the latter exhibits pronounced continuity in ritual performance as well as its influence on social, economic, and political activities.
A deep knowledge of local variants is necessary in dealing politically with Tibetan and Tibetan-Burman groups on both sides of the Himalayas. In practice - for instance - that concerns the careful planning of projects on environmental issues resulting in an avoidance of confrontations between local communities and government institutions such as national parks.

The political aspect of the Tibetan Mountain Cult

Political and historical research on Tibet in recent times has made it increasingly clear that Tibet cannot be understood in terms of a modern, centralised nation-state. The perception of Tibet as a politically homogeneous country constructed around a centralised bureaucracy is no longer tenable. Reality can be best described by the term galactic polity, originally formulated for South-East Asia by Stanley Tambiah (1984) and later applied to Tibet by Geoffrey Samuel (1995).
The designation galactic polity characterises a state comprising a collection of principalities (kingdoms, powerful monastic estates, nomadic confederations, etc.) of varying size and degrees of autonomy more or less dependent on a major centre (in this case Lhasa), either directly or through the intermediary of some lesser regional centre. An accurate representation of the Tibetan state can therefore be based only on an understanding of the nature of these component principalities and their relationship to the central government.
Posted by: stefan


A bronze rosette from Pliska, dedicated to the seven celestial bodies and marked by the typical Bulgar symbol IYI, and two stone slabs with the same symbol and
drawings of the Sun and the Moon.

10. Coalescence of Sun and Moon and/or Union of Sun and Moon (nyi zla kha sbyor), Tantra of the Union of Sun and Moon (nyi zla kha sbyor gyi rgyud)


Yaksha Kingdom refers to the territory of a tribe called Yakshas who were one among the Exotic Tribes of Ancient India. They had kinship with another similar tribe viz. Rakshasas. Yaksha king Vaisravana (also known as Kubera, Kuvera etc) and Rakshasa king Ravana were both sons of the sage Visrava Paulastya. Kubera is sometimes mentioned as a Rakshasa king. Kubera ruled a Yaksha kingdom of enormous wealth near the Kailasa mountains. Pandavas visited this place during their forest life, by mounting the Himalayas with the help of Rakshasa Ghatotkacha and his friends.

In Bulgarian language -- YAK means STRONG MEN

Yaksha Territory
The territory of Yakshas under Kubera is mentioned as the region surrounding the Kailasa mountains and Manasa lake (Tibet) in the Himalayas.

At (3:310) of Mahabharata is a conversation of a Yaksha and Pandava king Yudhisthira. Here Yaksha is described as an invisible voice from the sky, coming from the top of the trees, in a dense forest.

KUBER and KUBRAT are the Protobulgarian's names !

Another prominent Yaksha found mention in Mahabharata is Sthunakarna. He dwelt in a forest close to the Panchala Kingdom. He converted Shikhandini, the daughter of Panchala king Drupada into a male by exchanging his male sexuality with her. Here the Yaksha is addressed as a Guhyaka, the one who dwells in caves or in hidden places.


110 Ila's strange desire
Rama narrated the episode of Ila to Lakshmana. " Kardama's son Ila was the ruler of Bahlika. Once on a hunting spree he reached the territory where Kumaraswamy was born. There Siva was moving around in the guise of a woman with Parvati. Even the birds and beasts also were in the feminine guise. Ila and his entourage too turned into women. Knowing it was Siva's deed, Ila prayed to him. Siva was not pleased. So, urged Parvati. She said, " Half your boon will be granted by Siva and half by me." Ila said he wanted to be a man and a woman in alternate months. She said, "Amen," He metamorphosed into Iladevi and spent one month.

Posted by: stefan


My name is Angel Angelov. I was born 11.02.1971 year. I’m playing guitar and drums. On age17, I was a drummer of local trash metal band “Tornado”. As a student in economic university, from 1991 to 1996 I was a drummer of heavy metal band called “Absolute” and in that time we recorded 2 albums. After that I was a guitar player for 2 years and then a drummer of band from my hometown called “Accident”. We had a good time, playing covers on clubs and stages in BG. From 1999 to 2004 after some changes of the band, we had gigs in Norway, Denmark and Greenland. Now I’m working on my own project called COLOBAR which means ancient Bulgarian wizard. I still have work on it, but I hope it will be relies?d soon. ........
Posted by: stefan


See the picture of MADARA's HORSEMAN !

The Sun is called Dingir-UTU (Sun God) by the Shumerians
Posted by: stefan

Re: MADARA's HORSEMAN --- THE SUN GOD TANGRA I Y I - 12/20/07 02:38 PM


See this LINK below :
Posted by: stefan

THE SUN GOD TANGRA I Y I --> Surya Namaskara - 12/27/07 08:27 AM

Surya Namaskara (lit. "salute to the sun"), is a common sequence of Hatha yoga asanas. Its origins lie in a worship of Surya, the Hindu solar deity. This sequence of movements and poses can be practised on varying levels of awareness, ranging from that of physical exercise in various styles, to a complete sadhana which incorporates asana, pranayama, mantra and chakra meditation.

The physical base of the practice links together twelve asanas in a dynamically performed series. These asanas are ordered so that they alternately stretch the spine backwards and forwards. When performed in the usual way, each asana is moved into with alternate inhalation and exhalation (except for the sixth asana where the breath is held in external suspension). A full round of Surya namaskara is considered to be two sets of the twelve poses with a change in the second set to moving the opposite leg first through the series.

Proponents of the use of Surya namaskara as part of the modern yoga tradition prefer to perform it at sunrise, which the orthodox consider to be the most 'spiritually favourable' time of the day.


The sun was recognised by all ancient people to be
the source of light and warmth.
Among the Aryans the sun was deified. The sun (Surya)
was one of the chief deities in the
Vedas. He was recognised as the source of light (Dinkara),
source of warmth (Bhaskara).
In the Vedas he is also referred to as the source of
all life, the centre of creation and the
centre of the spheres.